REVISION :This assignment is designed to examine knowledge of pathophysiology and pain assessment related to the presenting symptoms of the patient Essay Example

Knowledge of Pathophysiology and Pain Assessment

Causes of Pain

Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infection, which is referred to as UTI is a more common infection that is normally as a result of accumulation of pathogenic organisms at any part of the structure within the urinary tract (Crisp & Taylor, 2005, p.52). Such pathogens comprises of parasites, fungus, or bacteria, which have frightening symptoms and signs to individuals experiencing it for first time. Urinary tract infection is considered to be more frequent with women as compared to men, and this is attributed to the structural exposure of female genitalia. While some of the known infections can go unseen, Urinary tract infections are believed to have major issues from abdominal pain (especially when urinating), to damage of the organ, and sometimes to death (Leonard, Marshall, & Moayyedi, 2007, p.80).

Ectopic Pregnancy

.Taylor, Kermode, & Roberts, 2007, p.103). This pregnancy complication is mainly caused by a situation that leads to blockage or slowed down movement of a fertilized egg going through the fallopian tube to the womb. Such blockage can be as result of hormonal factors or other vital factors, such as persistent smoking when pregnant. It is usually diagnosed within the initial 5-10 weeks of the pregnancy, and normally becomes more serious when it is categorized by intra-abdominal hemorrhage, which is characterized by severe bleeding ((Talbot, & Verrinder, 2005, p. 43)An ectopic pregnancy is a complication that normally crop up when a pregnancy begins to grow outside the uterus. It is common within the fallopian tube through which the egg from the ovary passes to get into the uterus, but at times it can take place in the stomach area, ovary, or even the cervix


Gastroenteritis is also referred to as stomach flu that causes abdominal inflammation and irritation on the stomach and the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized by diarrhea, crampy abdominal pain, nausea, and finally with vomiting. Through Gastroenteritis one is able to loss a lot of body fluids, which is the main cause of dehydration, something that is a life-threatening complication, unless treated (Tack, et al., 2006, p.62).


Cholecystitis is identified to be an inflammation that usually occurs on the gallbladder, which takes place due to impediment caused on the cystic duct as a result of cholelithiasis. This is a more frequent complication that involves bacterial proliferation, and is characterized by the following risk factors such as pregnancy, specific ethnic group, female sex, obesity, increasing age, and rapid weight loss (Talbot, & Verrinder, 2005, p. 85).

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection that usually affects a woman’s pelvic organs, which include the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and cervix bone. PID is caused by bacteria or just referred to as germs that are more often the main cause of gonorrhea and Chlamydia, which moves through the vagina and infects the pelvic bone (Brown & Edwards, 2008, p.43).

Assessment of Pain

Where is your pain?

Determining the exact location of pain is the beginning of knowing the real cause and the origin of such pain (Talbot, & Verrinder, 2005, p. 105
). This question is specific and significant in determining the possible measures to be put in place so that such pain is dealt with.

How long have you been experiencing the pain?

Determining the duration of pain will help in ascertaining the category of the existing pain, which can be chronic or acute. This is a basis of knowing the exact level that treatment is supposed to be offered to the patient (Tack et al., 2006, p.26)

Does the pain “come and go” or is it constant?

Pain may be manifested in two forms, one being in simplest form (referred to as acute) while the other form being in a more complex form (chronic) (Taylor, Kermode, & Roberts, 2007, p.77). Therefore, there is need a better assessment to be carried out for the purpose having a correct and consistent diagnosis of the main cause and origin of pain. This will help in proper isolation and treatment prescription for Jane.

How did the pain come about?

It is of significance to understand how Jane started to experience such pain, since the diagnosis and treatment to be offered to her is supposed to be exact for the purpose of having a faster relief. This will help in determining the progression of the diagnosed cause of the pain and the possible measures to be put in place to assist Jane coping with the complication (Crisp, & Taylor, 2005, p.53).


, 2nd edn, Sydney: Elsevier Mosby, pp. 10-98Lewis’s medical–surgical nursing: assessment and management of clinical problemsBrown, D. & Edwards, H., 2008,

Crisp, J. & Taylor, C., 2005, Potter & Perry’s fundamentals of nursing, 2nd edn, Australia: Elsevier, Marrickville, NSW, pp. 25-88

Leonard, J., Marshall, J. K., & Moayyedi, P., 2007, Systematic review of the risk of enteric infection in patients taking acid suppression: 1st edn, Australia: Elsevier Marrickville, NSW, pp. 4-99

Tack, J., et al., 2006, Functional gastroduodenal disorders Gastroenterolog,2nd edn, Marrickville, Australia: Elsevier NSW, pp. 19-76

Talbot, L. & Verrinder, G., 2005, Promoting health: the primary health care approach, 3rd edn, Marrickville, Australia: Elsevier, pp 9-132

Taylor, B., Kermode, S., & Roberts, K., 2007, Research in nursing and health care: evidence for practice, 3rd edn, Australia: Thompson, pp. 15-228