Reviews Essay Example

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Douglass, (2014), describes carbon budget as the evaluation of the maximum amount of greenhouse gases that can be dislodged in the air over given period while warming the air to a specified level. According to the author, carbon budgets frequently are based on holding the standard global temperatures which are lower than 2 degrees when compared to the 18th during the Industrial Age (Douglass, 2014). Douglass, (2014), argues that the increase in burning of fossils fuels for the last 250 years has dislodged large amounts of carbon in the air thus causing the atmospheric temperatures to rise by nearly 0.8 degrees C. The author has it that even a rise of temperatures by 2 degrees C can facilitate more adverse climatic changes. Due to these effects of carbon, the author proposes an expansion in the use of other forms of energy even if there are several gains of coal, natural gas, and oil. However, the author notes that world leaders have failed to sign an agreement which would cut carbon (IV) Oxide emissions. In fact, some countries like Japan and Australia have dropped their earlier carbon pledges (Douglass, 2014).

Wells (2009), argues in his article of “complexity of climate change” that over decades now there has been a concern of the climate change complexities. The author notes that climatic system of the earth is a very complex and interrelated system which is formed by the oceans, atmosphere and various water bodies such as snow, ice, and land surface. These aspects are linked by the flows of matter and energy on earth (Wells 2009). The author acknowledges that the climate concerns have grown due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions in the air. Wells (2009), indicates the climate models which can be used to show the way greenhouse gases substantially interferes with the atmospheric temperatures. Wells highlights the interaction between global radioactive substances and the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and their effects. Furthermore, he also indicates the way nitrogen and carbon cycles tamper with the concentration of air which supports life. Therefore, the author focuses majorly on the effects of carbon and non-carbon greenhouse gases and their effects when emitted in the atmosphere.

According to UNFCCC COP21 (2016), the “The Paris Agreement” outlines the need for viability approaches in dealing with climate change elimination. UNFCCC COP21 (2016), acknowledges the importance of carbon offsetting which is the process of purchasing carbon credits based on the domestic and international markets with the aim of offsetting carbon emissions. This activity is indeed becoming an avenue of choice according to the author. All these activities are with regards to the Paris Agreement on climate change. UNFCCC COP21 (2016), notes that carbon offsetting has gained a lot of attention especially in the context of international aviation carbon emission discussions. The Paris Agreement is crucial since it explores the carbon offsetting procedures as well as summarizes the legal considerations in undertaking this activity (UNFCCC COP21 2016). The carbon offsetting procedures are implemented with legal guidelines which are laid down in The Paris Agreement” (UNFCCC COP21 2016). Some of these guidelines include a summary of project types and standards applied in establishing the quality of carbon being offset.

Bowen and Rydge (2011), apply the topical and novel approaches to investigate residential energy use in the UK with regards to behavioral study. The authors note that the major lesson from the recent behavioral economic advances is that reactions of various people to uncertainty and policy incentives which are different from the standard rational optimizing predictive behavior. The author uses both quantitative and qualitative studies to consider the motivations of the UK households to reduce fossil fuel use (Bowen and Rydge, 2011). They also discuss the use of interpretative behaviors to analyze a variety of incentives which can be used to encourage behavior change as far as fossil fuel use is concerned. The authors say that their interpretative behavioral study shows some incentives which are crucial in promoting behavior change (Bowen and Rydge, 2011). Among the respondents of the authors’ case, study participants agree and acknowledge the importance of government roles in regulating energy use. This is the only way of reducing carbon (IV) Oxide emissions; therefore, the policy needs to aim at a sustainable power consumption.

Khan, (2016), highlights the primary strands of international relations theory in the article. These international relations theories include constructivism, regime, liberalism and realism theory. The author links these ideas with the international cooperation with regards to adaptation. Also, the author notes that all these strands above entail aspects of cooperation for adaptation though in some perspectives. Khan, (2016), argues that the present climate regime frequently reflects a mix of institutional functionalism, neoliberalism and government theory. The author bases his argument on the constructivist thinking which prepares the ground for the dawn of a new norm for improved evaluation of GPB and GPG during the era of increasing common international challenges (Khan, 2016). The author argues that such exercises have the perspective of controlling a more massive political reaction with regards to globalizing the duties of handling this kind of adaptation (Khan, 2016). The author says that this new norm of evaluating adaptation is still in its embryonic stages and there is a projection of more conceptualizations through the international governing theory like the atmospheric sink capacity.

Moellendorf, (2012), examines the matters regarding climate change and justice in the light of present work in the international justice system. The author briefly explores the most crucial modern work by the theorist and political philosophers with regards to international justice as well as linking them to some considerations based on climate change and justice (Moellendorf, 2012). Moellendorf (2012), bases his study on the context of the global treaty as well as critically analyzes some aspects which include human rights, climate change, polluter-pays concept and historical emissions roles. Moellendorf(2012), furthermore addresses the issues of grandfathering entitlements with the aim of emitting greenhouse gases, right to sustainable developments, equal per capita and duties of financing adaptations with regards to adaptation to climate change. In fact, these group of issues still fail to deeply explore the list of considerations regarding international climate change and justice. However, it comprises of the most crucial of such factors (Moellendorf, 2012).

Detraz(2009), discusses the environmental security, a matter which has been under discussion since the end of the Cold War. In fact, this issue of environmental safety has resulted in a representation of the way policy makers and scholars would connect to the approaches of traditional security scholarships regarding the environment (Detraz, 2009). The author notes that some different conceptions of the connection amid the security and environment feature in academe. However, irrespective of that, the diversity of present work regarding the security and environment has been slightly systematic work done regarding intersection amid the gender and environmental security (Detraz, 2009). Also, the article addresses the importance of gender inclusivity into the concepts of security and environment. The author acknowledges that environmental security has nowadays included the gendered approaches with regards to environment and security. Detraz(2009), recognizes that gendered understandings and assumptions help some people though in some cases they are not useful to others. Consequently, the author notes that scrutinizing environmental security through gendered approach by a gender lens would provide an insight into global gendered nature with regards to environment politics.

Piguet et al. (2011), note that climate change has been a major concern globally. Also, the authors recognize the impacts of climate change on migration which has become an object of increasing attention to both types of research and policy makers. However, the authors accept that the knowledge regarding climate change has remained fragmented and limited. The articles provide a brief outline of the climate change which the authors state as the migration nexus with regards to socio-political, empirical findings and critical perspectives of the relationship amid migration and environment (Piguet et al. 2011). These environmental notions and concepts would greatly address the relationship amid human rights and gender as well as the global policy and law orientations (Piguet et al. 2011). The authors highlight the environmental and climate change factors with regards to migration as well as their relationships with other pull and push factors. These factors the authors note to be economic nature, political and social factors.

Corner and Pidgeon (2010), say that the anthropogenic climate change has become a global political precedence. They note that various governments of the world are nowadays trying to come up with policies which would help in eliminating the greenhouse gases emissions. The authors see the rising political activities regarding climate as very dangerous because they shall continue worsening the situation (Corner and Pidgeon, 2010). According to Corner and Pidgeon, (2010), the effects of climate change has started being greatly felt in the Polar Regions. Also, the environment control policies are crucial since they shall help in mitigating climate change effects (Corner and Pidgeon, 2010). However, the authors agree that it is tough to establish exactly the constituents of climate change. Nevertheless, they concur with other scholars that reducing global warming up to 2 degrees C. or below is critical. However, in case global warming goes beyond this point, it would pose several dangers to human beings and animals (Corner and Pidgeon, 2010).

Abate, and Kronk (2013), explore the ways through which climate change impacts on the rights of indigenous people. They agree that climate change has become an international issue which has caused greenhouse gases. Even though the greenhouse effects are global, but it has become a nuisance to the indigenous people (Abate &Kronk 2013). The authors recognize legal strategies which can be used to mitigate the growing challenges of climate change. The indigenous people are very susceptible to climate change either legally or physically thus needs to be helped to address these issues of climate change (Abate &Kronk 2013). The authors note that the word indigenous people comprise a broadly diverse group of individuals. Also, no two communities of these indigenous populations are similar. However, Abate&Kronk (2013), note that some communities exist amid indigenous groups of peoples. An example of this is that indigenous groups are seen to exist as independent before they got into contact with the international societies (Abate, &Kronk 2013).


Abate, RS&KronkEA. 2013,‘Commonality among unique indigenous communities: An introduction to climate change and its impacts on indigenous peoples,’ inAbate, RS&KronkEA. (eds.)Climate change and indigenous peoples: the search for legal Remedies. Edward Elgar Pub.pp 3-18.

Bowen, A&Rydge, J. 2011,Climate Change Policy in the United Kingdom. (August Policy Paper), Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics, London, 251-269.

Corner, A& Pidgeon, N. 2010,‘Geoengineering the climate: the social and ethical implications,’Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, vol 52, no. 1, pp.24-37.

Detraz, N. 2009,‘Environmental security and gender: Necessary shifts in an evolving debate,’Security Studies, vol. 18, no. 2, pp.345-369.

Douglass, E. 2014.‘Climate Primer: Explaining the Global Carbon Budget and Why It Matters,’Insideclimate News, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 2-15. Retrieved from

Khan, MR. 2016,‘Climate Change, Adaptation and International Relations Theory,’In Sosa-Nunez, G& Atkins, Ed. (eds.)Environment, Climate Change and International Relations, E-International Relations, Bristol.p.14 – 29.

Moellendorf, D. 2012,‘Climate change and global justice,’Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, vol. 3, no. 2, pp.131-143.

Piguet, EPécoud, A& De Guchteneire, P. 2011, ‘Migration and climate change: An overview,’Refugee Survey Quarterly, vol. 30, no. 3, pp.1-23.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC COP21), 2016, ‘The Paris Agreement,’ viewed online 2 June 2017 <>

Wells, J. L. 2009, Complexity and climate change: an epistemological study of transdisciplinary complexity theories and their contribution to socio-ecological phenomena. Thesis (Ph. D), in Environmental Science, Policy, and Management)-University of California, Berkeley, Fall 2009.