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  • Researches on careers on the repatriation majorly focus on the intra-company return of the traditionally assigned expatriates sent overseas by their organizations. However, nowadays the professionals are initiating their expatriation leaving their home countries without the aid of the company (Yi, 2012). The self-initiated expatriates around the global economy are becoming the point of interest. With the rising competition in the global markets, learning institutions are seeking talented and professionally skilled personnel to assist in filling such gaps. Consequently, these factors make academic expatriates important to the learning institutions. In addition, universities are increasingly extending their search for qualified professions beyond the international borders. Accordingly, the self-initiated expatriate academics are the representatives of the fast growing group of the highly educated professionals gaining employment opportunities in the learning institutions abroad. Nonetheless, there is limited research on the academic expatriates (Forstenlechner, 2010). In most cases, when researching the SIE academics, the most evident theme is the financial incentive, which is their greatest motivator. Moreover, researchers also indicate that whenever the SIEs failed to acquire the appropriate credentials, they would pre-occupy themselves with the jobs that match their academic and professional qualifications. The study undertaken among the 50 new Zealanders revealed that the SIEs that failed to acquire the required visas and work permits opted to undertake the jobs that did not meet the professional qualifications. Usually, most MNCs tend to disgrace the education qualification of most SIEs since the knowledge and experiences that they seek do not match their requirements, which could in turn contribute significantly to them returning home or remaining underemployed. In most cases, people whose major motivation behind SIE is inadequacies in job opportunities are usually either at the beginning of their careers or in the advanced stage of their careers.

Researches on careers on the repatriation majorly focus on the intra-company return of the traditionally assigned expatriates sent overseas by their organizations. However, nowadays the professionals are initiating their expatriation leaving their home countries without the aid of the company (Yi, 2012). The self-initiated expatriates around the global economy are becoming the point of interest. With the rising competition in the global markets, learning institutions are seeking talented and professionally skilled personnel to assist in filling such gaps. Consequently, these factors make academic expatriates important to the learning institutions. In addition, universities are increasingly extending their search for qualified professions beyond the international borders. Accordingly, the self-initiated expatriate academics are the representatives of the fast growing group of the highly educated professionals gaining employment opportunities in the learning institutions abroad. Nonetheless, there is limited research on the academic expatriates (Forstenlechner, 2010). In most cases, when researching the SIE academics, the most evident theme is the financial incentive, which is their greatest motivator. Moreover, researchers also indicate that whenever the SIEs failed to acquire the appropriate credentials, they would pre-occupy themselves with the jobs that match their academic and professional qualifications. The study undertaken among the 50 new Zealanders revealed that the SIEs that failed to acquire the required visas and work permits opted to undertake the jobs that did not meet the professional qualifications. Usually, most MNCs tend to disgrace the education qualification of most SIEs since the knowledge and experiences that they seek do not match their requirements, which could in turn contribute significantly to them returning home or remaining underemployed. In most cases, people whose major motivation behind SIE is inadequacies in job opportunities are usually either at the beginning of their careers or in the advanced stage of their careers.

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2.2 Trends in International Work Experiences

2.2.0 Introduction

In several ways, the studies undertaken on the trends in the international work experience and expatriation give the employers reasonable good news from their expatriates on assignment. Currently, most organizations are considering investment in international and emerging markets in a bid to increase the market share and operational base (Boncori, 2013). As a result, the multinational corporations are seeking employees talented in international working experience to guarantee the achievement of the desired results and ensure smooth flow of organizational activities. The responses from various studies on expatriation reveal that the employers tend to provide their most important resources towards the areas that they rate highest in importance through the general population of the expatriates. In response, the expatriates issue the employers with good satisfaction rating in key phrases: pre-assignment and during the assignment. Nonetheless, with the focus on any employer-employee relationship, there are considered amount of unmet expectations. Since most employers are doing adequate job in several areas that, they consider mattering the most, the process of identifying specific areas where the employers fall short and explored through focusing on various subjects throughout the assignment affecting the crucial demographic segments (El-Mansour & Wood, 2010). Although the connection between the expatriates’ assignments and the success of their career is unclear, various researches undertaken on repatriation clearly reveal that that those that have expatriated are disappointed and frustrated whenever they are back in their home countries. Moreover, most expatriates view their employers as people who do not value their international experiences whenever they are back in their home countries. With the rising level of competition across the sectors including the learning institutions, universities as well seek to employee talented and professionally skilled personnel (Shaffer, Joplin & Hsu, 2011). However, the SIEs often opt to expatriate for different reasons depending on their objectives. Consequently, such differences contribute to rising trend in expatriation and international work experience. Therefore, this section on the trend in international work experience and expatriations aims at discussing the context of multinational enterprises and the role of universities in expatriation.

2.2.1 Organizational context

The roles played by the expatriates depend on the international strategies of the organization. Researches undertaken previously suggest that the increasing tide associated with the employment of the expatriates are because of the rising level of globalization, inadequacies in the necessary management, and the technical skills required within the home countries. Most organizations usually need to have control over international markets through people that they perceive dependable to manage their global operations (Fernandez & Barth, 2010). Conventionally, organizations use international assignments for tactful reasons in a bid to expand their business enterprises and cater the skilful workers within the host country. Within the contemporary society, organizations are taking the strategic approach in which the international assignments play important role in ensuring succession of business planning and development of leadership (Ali, Sulaiman & Selvanathan, 2010). There are several reasons besides using the expatriates in the organizations including the transfer of technology and knowledge, adequate transfer of the corporate culture, establishment of new endeavours, and building a highly competitive and management expertise. The issues associated with the management of the expatriates and their adjustment play vital role in influencing the outcomes of the international assignments. Expatriation could be a stressful event especially if there is no organizational support and coordination of activities. The stress factors could result due to the involvement in substantial changes within the social and professional life. Assistance from the organization usually assists in the reduction of the time the expatriates need to spend on such challenges and facilitate the adjustment process to the new work environment. Organizations play important role in the acculturation process of the expatriates. Although many researchers argue that organizational support might be vital in determining the adjustment and performance of the employees, yet there is little research examined on its effects of expatriates’ adjustment in practice.

2.2.1.1 Multinational enterprises MNEs

With the rising number of businesses embracing globalization, it is becoming an increasingly common practice for the enterprises to assign their employees to ensure adequate extension of the work assignments in international markets. Therefore, the expatriates assignments not only enable the multinational enterprises to carry out their current international initiatives, but is also serves as a vital tool that ensures proper development of the international managers that would lead these enterprises in the future. Generally, globalization plays important role in creating an increased demand for global business leaders with the high level of global awareness and properly honed global expertise (Isakovic, 2015). Therefore, expatriates assignments play important role in the development of such international managers. International assignment is the most influencing force in the development of international managers. Several studies suggest that managers in multinational corporations with international assignments usually experience effective management of the multinational corporation than the managers lacking these experiences. Although the previously undertaken researches reveal that the employees often find it difficult, challenging, and to some extent overwhelming while undertaking the expatriates assignments, the recent researches are focusing on the need to understand the manner in which the MNCs could reduce the increasing failure rates and other challenges associated with extension of the overseas assignments. Despite such challenges, many employees are still willing to accept international assignments since they believe such opportunities would assist them get ahead in their organizations (Lee & Sukoco, 2010). Previous research indicate that the expatriates undertake international roles for their managerial development in a bid to serve as the source of control or fill the oversee position until the organization locates a permanent employee. Moreover, overseas assignment for the development of managerial skills allows people to develop their international skills, which make them become valuable assets to the MNCs. Nonetheless, considering the nature of the assignments, the expatriates sent abroad to have control over the subsidiary operations usually have less concern on the development of international skills and abilities.

2.2.1.2 Universities and expatriates 

Researches on careers on the repatriation majorly focus on the intra-company return of the traditionally assigned expatriates sent overseas by their organizations. However, nowadays the professionals are initiating their expatriation leaving their home countries without the aid of the company (Yi, 2012). The self-initiated expatriates around the global economy are becoming the point of interest. With the rising competition in the global markets, learning institutions are seeking talented and professionally skilled personnel to assist in filling such gaps. Consequently, these factors make academic expatriates important to the learning institutions. In addition, universities are increasingly extending their search for qualified professions beyond the international borders. Accordingly, the self-initiated expatriate academics are the representatives of the fast growing group of the highly educated professionals gaining employment opportunities in the learning institutions abroad. Nonetheless, there is limited research on the academic expatriates (Forstenlechner, 2010). In most cases, when researching the SIE academics, the most evident theme is the financial incentive, which is their greatest motivator. Moreover, researchers also indicate that whenever the SIEs failed to acquire the appropriate credentials, they would pre-occupy themselves with the jobs that match their academic and professional qualifications. The study undertaken among the 50 new Zealanders revealed that the SIEs that failed to acquire the required visas and work permits opted to undertake the jobs that did not meet the professional qualifications. Usually, most MNCs tend to disgrace the education qualification of most SIEs since the knowledge and experiences that they seek do not match their requirements, which could in turn contribute significantly to them returning home or remaining underemployed. In most cases, people whose major motivation behind SIE is inadequacies in job opportunities are usually either at the beginning of their careers or in the advanced stage of their careers.

References

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Saarbrücken Scholars’ Press. ?Antecedents of Adjustment for Self-Initiated Academic Expatriates: Is our understanding of traditional expatriate adjustment generalizable to self-initiating expatriatesIsakovic, A. A. (2015).

(7), 963-981. 21, The International Journal of Human Resource ManagementLee, L., & Sukoco, B. M. (2010). The effects of cultural intelligence on expatriate performance: the moderating effects of international experience.

(2), 221-268. 11, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management Expanding the boundaries of work-family research: A review and agenda for future research.Shaffer, M. A., Joplin, J. R., & Hsu, Y. (2011).

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