Research Proposal Essay Example

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9Research Proposal

RESEARCH PROPOSAL: WHY IS SEXUAL VIOLENCE A COMMON OCCURRENCE IN EAST AFRICA? CASE STUDY OF KENYA, RWANDA AND UGANDA 

Research Proposal: Why Is Sexual Violence a Common Occurrence In East Africa? Case Study of Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda 

Proposed Research Question

The dissertation will focus on addressing or handling of the following general research question prior to assessment of the specific research questions:

  1. Why is Sexual Violence a Common Occurrence in East Africa? Case Study of Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda 

  • What are the causes of sexual violence in Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda?

  • How have the criminal justice system, politicians, and police focused on addressing the issue of sexual violence in Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda?

  • Why are these efforts inappropriate in curbing the social problem in Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda?

Objective of the Dissertation

The objective of this dissertation is to evaluate the causes of sexual violence in Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda while accounting for the failures in relation to responses by politicians, criminal justice system, and the police in curbing the vice.

Aims of the Dissertation

The dissertation will focus on the achievement of the following aims:

  1. To determine the causes of sexual violence in Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda

  2. To assess responses by the criminal justice system, the police, and politicians in attempts to curb sexual violence within the three nations of East Africa region

  3. To determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the responses by the criminal justice system, politicians, and the police

  4. To make appropriate recommendations in relation to the required approaches to curb the issue of sexual violence in Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda

Dissertation’s Position in the Existing Literature

Sexual violence is one the rise among the three nations of interest: Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda. Diverse researchers tend to consider culture as the major cause of the sexual violence, particularly against women in the region. In addition, financial insecurity has been a critical factor in the increased cases of sexual violence, thus aiding the role of alcohol and drugs in instigating sexual violence against women in Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda. Numerous researchers have focused on the assessment of gender-based violence, domestic violence, and sexual violence with reference to the cases of Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda. Kagwanja (2000) sought to examine the relationship between ethnicity, gender, and violence in the context of Kenya.

These findings were essential in the development of the research by Erulkar (2004) in the course of evaluating the experience of sexual coercion among young people with reference to the case of Kenya. Kimuna & Djamba (2008) provided the platform towards understanding the essence of gender-based violence while determining the relationship between physical and sexual wife abuse in Kenya. The development and execution of this research or dissertation will be ideal in enhanced understanding of the diverse causes of sexual violence in the case of the three nations. There have also been studies on the intimate partner violence, sexual violence legislation in Sub-Saharan Africa, usage of alcohol, intimate partner violence, and war related sexual violence in Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda (Karamagi et al, 2006; Zablotske et al, 2009; Kilonzo et al, 2009; Emenike et al, 2008; Kinyanda et al, 2010). Alison (2007) also discusses the issue of war in enhancing aspects of sexual violence in the case of the region in the African Continent.

Geary et al (2008) also focused on the assessment of early sexual debut sexual violence, as well as sexual risk-taking among pregnant adolescents in the case of Uganda. The development and execution of this dissertation will seek to add to the growing body of knowledge in relation to understanding issues concerning sexual violence in the three nations with reference to Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda. Some of the other essential topics of study include politics of identity and sexual violence, primary mental health care for survivors of collective sexual violence, and wartime sexual violence. In addition, researchers have also focused on the assessment of gender hate propaganda and sexual violence, and use of gender analysis to build voluntary counselling (Robinson & Yeh, 2011; Taegtmeyer et al, 2006;Ward & Marsh, 2006; Coleman, 2002; Wells, 2004; Weitsman, 2008; Koenig et al, 2003; Zraly et la, 2011).

Bibliography

  • Kagwanja, P. M. 2000. Ethnicity, gender and violence in Kenya. Forced Migration Review, 9, 22-25.

  • Erulkar, A. S. 2004. The experience of sexual coercion among young people in Kenya. International Family Planning Perspectives, 182-189.

  • Emenike, E., Lawoko, S., & Dalal, K. 2008. Intimate partner violence and reproductive health of women in Kenya. International nursing review, 55(1), 97-102.

  • Kimuna, S. R., & Djamba, Y. K. 2008. Gender based violence: correlates of physical and sexual wife abuse in Kenya. Journal of Family Violence, 23(5), 333-342.

  • Kilonzo, N., Ndung’u, N., Nthamburi, N., Ajema, C., Taegtmeyer, M., Theobald, S., & Tolhurst, R. 2009. Sexual violence legislation in sub-Saharan Africa: the need for strengthened medico-legal linkages. Reproductive health matters, 17(34), 10-19.

  • Zablotska, I. B., Gray, R. H., Koenig, M. A., Serwadda, D., Nalugoda, F., Kigozi, G., … & Wawer, M. 2009. Alcohol use, intimate partner violence, sexual coercion and HIV among women aged 15–24 in Rakai, Uganda. AIDS and Behavior, 13(2), 225-233.

  • Karamagi, C. A., Tumwine, J. K., Tylleskar, T., & Heggenhougen, K. 2006. Intimate partner violence against women in eastern Uganda: implications for HIV prevention. BMC public health, 6(1), 284.

  • Kinyanda, E., Musisi, S., Biryabarema, C., Ezati, I., Oboke, H., Ojiambo-Ochieng, R., … & Walugembe, J. 2010. War related sexual violence and it’s medical and psychological consequences as seen in Kitgum, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study. BMC international health and human rights, 10(1), 28.

  • Geary, C. W., Baumgartner, J. N., Tucker, H. T., Johnson, L., & Wedderburn, M. 2008. Early sexual debut sexual violence and sexual risk-taking among pregnant adolescents and their peers in Jamaica and Uganda.

  • Koenig, M. A., Lutalo, T., Zhao, F., Nalugoda, F., Wabwire-Mangen, F., Kiwanuka, N., … & Gray, R. 2003. Domestic violence in rural Uganda: evidence from a community-based study. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81(1), 53-60.

  • Weitsman, P. A. 2008. The politics of identity and sexual violence: a review of Bosnia and Rwanda. Human rights quarterly, 30(3), 561-578.

  • Zraly, M., Rubin-Smith, J., & Betancourt, T. 2011. Primary mental health care for survivors of collective sexual violence in Rwanda. Global public health, 6(3), 257-270.

  • Wells, S. L. 2004. Gender, sexual violence and prospects for justice at the Gacaca Courts in Rwanda. S. Cal. Rev. L. & Women’s Stud., 14, 167.

  • Alison, M. 2007. Wartime sexual violence: women’s human rights and questions of masculinity. Review of International Studies, 33(01), 75-90.

  • Coleman, L. G. 2002. Gender Hate Propaganda and Sexual Violence in the Rwandan Genocide: An Argument for Inter-sectionality in International Law. Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 33(733).

  • Ward, J., & Marsh, M. 2006. Sexual violence against women and girls in war and its aftermath: realities, responses, and required resources. In Symposium on Sexual Violence in Conflict and Beyond (Vol. 21, p. 23).

  • Taegtmeyer, M., Kilonzo, N., Mung’ala, L., Morgan, G., & Theobald, S. 2006. Using gender analysis to build voluntary counseling and testing responses in Kenya. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 100(4), 305-311.

  • Robinson, J., & Yeh, E. 2011. Transactional sex as a response to risk in Western Kenya. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 35-64.

Methodology

In the course of executing this research, the dissertation will adopt and implement case study approach with the intention of focusing on the context of Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda. This is because of the influence of the approach to facilitate effectiveness and efficiency in the assessment, evaluation, and interpretation of the findings in relation to the phenomenon or the issue of sexual violence in the three nations. Similarly, dissertation will consider utilisation of diverse databases and Google Scholar to facilitate locating of the resources or research articles concerning the issue of sexual violence in Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda. The effective and efficient literature review in this dissertation will be appropriate for addressing the research questions, aims, and objectives with reference to the issue of sexual violence in the three countries of East Africa region. The findings of the study will be ideal in understanding the role and responses of the institutions in case of Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda.

In addition, the study will focus on comparing diverse perceptions and views of the researchers or authors of the articles from the research databases. This is vital in generating themes and patterns on the findings of causes of sexual violence, as well as responses by Criminal Justice System, the government, police, and politicians in the course of curbing the vice within the society of interest. Comparison and contrasting of the perceptions of these researchers or authors will be vital and critical in the determination of the causes of sexual violence, as well as effectiveness and efficiency of approaches to curb the vice.

Structure

The dissertation will focus on adoption and execution of the following research structure:

  • Executive summary

  • Table of Contents

  • Introduction

  • Background Information

  • Literature Review

  • Methodology

  • Findings

  • Recommendations

  • Conclusions

  • List of References

Research Timetable

Dissertation Task

Presentation of the Proposal

Location of Dissertation Resources and Articles

Documentation of Chapter 1 (Introduction and Background Information)

Documentation of Chapter: Literature Review

Documentation of Chapter 3: Methodology

Documentation of Chapter 4: Findings

Documentation of Chapter 5: Recommendation and Conclusion

Presentation of the Dissertation

In the course of executing this dissertation, I will consider consulting the ethics, documentation, and other elements of universal researcher on the university ethics website. In addition, I will discuss the ethics of my proposed research with my supervisor. I will seek full ethical approval for my research project.

How will you utilise the help of your supervisor

I will seek to exploit and utilise my supervisor’s input in the formulation of the fieldwork tools with reference to interview questions and techniques for location of resources. Regular feedbacks from my supervisor will be vital in the documentation and presentation of appropriate dissertation and paper. I will seek to incorporate these elements in improving validity, reliability, and trustworthiness of my dissertation.