Research essay: History or today; both First and Third worlds; sexual or domestic violence Example

For many years, societies have learned to live with problems of violence against women. Societies view violence against females as a typical thing. The perception of the society towards violence hinders eradication of domestic violence. Very few women will report or talk openly about domestic violence. There have been cases where police and judges dismiss claims of domestic violence as inconsequential1. It is clear that women and children are the victims of domestic violence in different parts of the world. The feminist movements rose to counter the violence and make women equal in the society as men. Very few radical women know the worst conditions that the women experience since they have no experience of domestic violence2. They do not understand the reason why illiterate girl seeks for man’s economic support. What they do not realize is that the girl wants to break out from the harsh and suppressive situations at home. The influential women do not suffer long periods of fear related to lack of knowledge and helpless about sexuality and pregnancy matters. Very few have an experience of constant drunkenness and violence from brutal fathers and husbands. They lack the understanding of the experience women go through in a harsh economic environment3. This research paper will explore the attitude towards, law, and approaches to end domestic violence. The discussion will focus on wife beating as a form of domestic violence.

The society views matters related to domestic violence as a private matter. Because of this, the number of women and children, who are the most victims, is unknown4. In most cases, police and judges dismiss claims relating to domestic violence as petty. The poor attitude towards domestic violence hinders many victims from reporting the matters to the authorities.

According to research in the US, over one million women fall victim of domestic violence from their husbands or boyfriends per year. Domestic violence claims the life of two women a week in the UK5. Most of the women suffer silently due to fear of discrimination and prejudice from male and sometimes their female counterparts6.

To explain people’s attitude and perception towards domestic violence, researchers have come up with three theories. The theories include Shaver’s defensive attribute, Lerner’s just-world theory, and Heider’s balance theory. Shaver’s defensive attributes theory argues that the more people identify with the victims, the less the attribution of the concern for the violence to the victim. People feel that the less they are similar to the victims, the safer they are. Lerner’s just-world theory argues that, people live in a just world where they get what they want. The theory attributes the violence to the victims are the results of what they deserve. Finally, Heider’s balance theory argues that people tend to interpret actions of a person as harm if they hate the person7. According to this theory, people with balanced cognitive tend to blame the abuser more than the victim8.

Ethnicity determines the attitude towards domestic violence. Wife beating does not distinguish race or geographical location. The African-Americans, European-Americans and the Hispanic women face domestic violence in rural, urban, and suburban areas from their husbands or boyfriends. In some cases of domestic violence, the black abusers are treated leniently because they are expected to behave in a violent manner. Studies have shown that the rate of domestic violence is higher among the African-American than in European-Americans. This prompts people to conclude that the tendency to be aggressive in in the genetic make-up of the Black. In a case of wife beating, women are more sympathetic towards the wife that the husband. According to Locke and Richman women, in relative to men, show more positive attitudes towards women and more negative attitude towards men and are against wife beating, a form of domestic violence9. The European-Americans in relative to African-Americans disapproves wife beating.

The attitudes towards domestic violence and especially wife beating have changed since 2000. Nigeria records that highest change with 65 percent of women rejecting domestic violence. According to research, more men in different countries are likely to reject domestic violence that women. Some of the countries studied are Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, Ethiopia, Malawi, Indonesia, Uganda, Madagascar, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. According to the study, men are likely to get annoyed to the extent of beating their wives10. This follows the Lerner’s just world. According to the theory, the man is doing what is right; correcting the wife.

Human right activists use human right to support a legal approach to domestic violence. This approach is viewed as not domineering towards fighting against domestic violence. Domestic violence is the biggest social problem facing the world today. If society does not step in, children who witness or experience, domestic ferocity will turn out to be future abusers themselves11. Domestic violence is costly to the government and the individuals involved. It is because of this fact, that different stated have come up with laws to counter domestic violence. In the UK, two women die every week because of domestic violence. The UK government therefore, determined to prevent domestic violence happening, to bring the abusers to justice and to support the victims. The law on domestic violence is affected by the society’s perception towards domestic violence. A study in the UK shows that girls feel that boys have that right to abuse their girlfriends if they feel or realize they are unfaithful.

United Nations developed international law and policy on domestic violence in conferences and treaty resolutions. The U.N. has a special Rapporteur on Violence against women that serve as an autonomous to issues relating to domestic violence. It is through these actors and the efforts of activists around the world that domestic violence is classified as a violation of human rights12. They promote education on the issue, raise awareness, to establish a state role in private acts of domestic violence, and conducts research related to domestic violence. Through these efforts, domestic violence is not only a violation of human rights, but also it is the responsibility of the state government to prevent domestic violence in all its forms, provide compensation to the victims, and punish the instigators of domestic violence.

Escalating cases of domestic violence, especially wife beating, in different parts of the word is not only due to fallen law enforcement, but also the society’s perception. Wife beating is a health problem. Many countries consider is as only a domestic violence issue and a criminal act and neglect the fact that it is a health issue13. The awareness of wife beating as a health problem is very low in many countries, despite the efforts of feminists and scholars. According to WHO reports, the attitude of health workers towards women disclosing cases of wife battering is negative14. Negative attitude, poor law enforcement, and society’s perception on issues of domestic violence are the major hindrances to the war against domestic violence.

The war against domestic violence is not a state war. Individuals in the society have roles to play in ending domestic violence. Individuals may support others in preventing abuse for the people at risk and accessing services. Although research shows that more men than women in many states reject domestic violence, they are urged to partner as champions and supporters. In most cases, men are the abusers while women are the recipients of domestic violence. Recruiting more men in the fight against wife beating is a prudent move since men can be the strongest voice in the fight against domestic violence against women15.

For the past two decades, the fight against domestic violence have witnessed excellent local and regional level services and outreach to strengthen capacity in advocating for law reform, knowledge, and strengthen service delivery. In Fiji, the Fiji Women’s Crises Centre (FWCC) and Regional Rights Resources Team (RRRT) provides activists fighting domestic violence with high level of strategic guidance and expertise. Several groups with the aim of ending domestic violence are coming up. The Sexual Violence Action Committee, the Family, and the Vanuatu Women’s Centre, are national and local organizations emerging to reach out to all classes of women in need. The organizations are working hard to reach to the remote communities in the mountains, outer islands, and swamplands16.

According to research in the developing countries, wife beating is highly related to husbands controlling behavior and drunkenness. The report, Profiling Domestic Violence, however, did not associate poverty, decision-making, and lack of education with domestic violence. Alcohol is directly linked to domestic violence. Control of alcohol consumption will reduce domestic violence in both the developed and developing countries. It should be made clear that not all drunks involve in domestic violence. Alcohol consumption is associated with poverty, unemployment and other stresses in life. Creating job opportunity with the aim of reducing poverty is a prudent way to tackle domestic violence.

The society’s perception of domestic violence is one of the key barriers to ending the violence. Abused women do not report the abuse because of fear the reaction of the society. The WHO recommends that women be given proper support in case of violence. It recommends health care facilities should provide a first in line women centers support when a woman divulges domestic violence. The women’s center should ensure the specialist does the consultation is done in a private and professional manner. The specialist should not be judgmental and they should be supportive17. They should also validate the velocity of the woman’s claims to come up with the correct course of action. To ensure that more women come out to report cases of domestic violence, the responsible sector, for instance the health care, should provide practical care and support that respond the concerns of the woman.

The governments are also responsible for ending domestic violence. It is the duty of the government to protect the citizens. In the UK is one of the governments that are ranking top in fighting domestic violence. The report published by the UK Commons International Development Committee praises the UK government for its international governance in confronting domestic violence. The reports pointed out the lack of the UK government to fight domestic violence within its border as a failure18. The government should address the issues of poverty and inequality. Poverty and unequal access to education and health care are also forms of gender violence. In the republic of Congo, 15000 women were raped during the 1990s war19. A similar thing happened in Darfur during the war. In Nepal, despite women contributing considerably to the national and domestic economy, their access to opportunities, resources, and skills power remains low.

In both the developing and developed countries, men are, most of the time, the abuser. Research has shown that more men than women reject domestic violence. That domestic violence is gender-based shows and reinforces inequality between women and men. It compromises the health, security, dignity, and autonomy of the abused women20. Domestic violence leaves deep psychological scars, including their sexual health and reproductive, damage the health of women and girls in common, and in some occurrences, results in death. Since men are considered the cause of wife beating, involving them in the fight against domestic violence will assist. Men and boys should be educated from the grass root21. The education should be through dissemination of information and society activities that engages man and the boys. Projects similar to ones started in Egypt, Palestine, and Jordan in 2011 should be introduced in other countries. The objectives of the project are to promote strategies and approaches of involving men to end domestic violence.

Domestic violence is not only a family matter. The society is affected by the violence too. Although in most cases the society believes that, a man has the right to punish his wife, the consequences that include caring for the victim, lie to the society. Proper education for the society is the key to fighting domestic violence. The education should involve sensitizing the society on the effects of domestic violence to the individuals and the society. Domestic Violence is a universal problem. Nearly two million people in the United States are abused physically, emotionally, or sexually. Apart from physical abuse, that most people think is the only form of abuse, emotional abuse is a form of domestic violence. Mental abuse is hard to spot because a person may not even recognize or want to recognize the abuse.

The consequences of domestic violence and domestic violence itself cost the United States millions of dollars in medical and counseling costs. The continuing cycle of violence the problem breeds in the worst that the actual financial cost if puts on the United State. Statistics show that children who witness or experience domestic violence are more apt to demonstrate those same behaviors as teens and adults22. Domestic violence breeds more violence if not controlled. If we could limit it, many other types of violence could be controlled. If nothing is done about the problem, the cycles of domestic abuse and violence will continue to escalate until their spirals are completely out of control. We already see much acceptance of violence and anti-social behavior in our country. It is vital that this abuse be confronted head-on because if we refuse than it is fatal to our society. Curbing the problem will also reduce the financial strain it puts on the State financial budget23.

Preventing abuse is more cost-effective than paying for the consequences of abuse. The state administration needs to intervene and assume responsibility in stemming the tide of domestic violence24. Every society in the world is affected by the domestic violence. Therefore, is considered an obstacle to achieve peace, development and, equality. Violence against women is an instance of domestic violence. During the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, this fact was realized. The representatives from 189 countries identified it as the critical areas that should be addressed globally. This would help bridge the gap of inequality between men and women. Moves to counter violence against women should be made to alleviate the situation and end the pain women endures. The woman should be empowered through proper education and opening up for her, the opportunities that have for long considered for men. Educating the society on the importance of woman in the society is a critical approach to ending violence against women25.

In conclusion, domestic violence is a universal problem. It does not only involve physical abuse but also emotional and manipulation from people held dear. If not controlled, domestic violence has severe physical, emotional, and economic consequences. In addition, children who witnessed domestic violence in their early life are likely to do the same when they grow up. Factors such as cultural, economic, legal, and political perpetuate domestic violence in the society. Many people who witnessed abuses between family as children members are likely to commit abuses. To end this cycle and to end domestic violence, the society needs to implement effective projects and programs. The society should help educate the violent perpetrators on the benefits of creating an environment free from violence for the children. Rehabilitation programs that stress self-control, and empathy, self-reflection, and that build flexibility, can allow them instead to offer their children concern, love, and sympathy.

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3Locke, Lisa M. and Charles L. Richman.

5 Choudhry, Shazia, and Jonathan Herring. «RIGHTING DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.» International

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6 McAfee K. and Myrna W. «Revolutionary Potential — Documents from the Women’s

Liberation Movement.» 1969, pp 200-220

7
Bowman, Cynthia Grant. «Theories of domestic violence in the African context.» Am. UJ Gender Soc. Pol’y

& L. 11, (2002): 847.

8«DRAMATIC CHANGES IN GLOBAL ATTITUDES TOWARD DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.» US Fed News Service, Including US State News, Apr 25, 2013, http://search.proquest.com/docview/1345886743?accountid=458 (accessed October 8, 2013), pp 342

9 Locke, Lisa M. and Charles L. Richman. «Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence: Race and

Gender Issues.» Sex Roles 40, no. 3 (02, 1999): 227-247,http://search.proquest.com/docview/225372095?accountid=458 (accessed October 8, 2013), pp 100-134

10«DRAMATIC CHANGES IN GLOBAL ATTITUDES TOWARD DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.» US Fed News Service, Including US State News, Apr 25, 2013, http://search.proquest.com/docview/1345886743?accountid=458 (accessed October 8, 2013), pp 342

Lancet, The. «Violence Against Women: Ending the Global Scourge.» The Lancet 381, no. 9884(Jun 22, 2013): 2135,http://search.proquest.com/doc view/1372100749?accountid=458 (accessed October 8, 2013), pp 123

12Medical News Today. «Analysis Of Domestic Violence Deaths.» 2007.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/88158.php (accessed 12 Oct 2013), pp 122- 156

13
Lancet, The. «Violence Against Women: Ending the Global Scourge.» The Lancet 381, no. 9884(Jun 22, 2013): 2135,http://search.proquest.com/doc view/1372100749?accountid=458 (accessed October 8, 2013), pp 123

14Medical News Today. «Analysis Of Domestic Violence Deaths.» 2007.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/88158.php (accessed 12 Oct 2013), pp 122- 156

15Lancet, The. «Violence Against Women: Ending the Global Scourge.» The Lancet 381, no. 9884(Jun 22, 2013): 2135,http://search.proquest.com/docview/1372100749?accountid=458 (accessed October 8, 2013), pp 90-112

16Medical News Today. «Analysis Of Domestic Violence Deaths.» 2007.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/88158.php (accessed 12 Oct 2013), pp 122- 156

17Medical News Today. «Analysis Of Domestic Violence Deaths.» 2007.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/88158.php (accessed 12 Oct 2013), pp 122- 156

18Lancet, The. «Violence Against Women: Ending the Global Scourge.» The Lancet 381, no. 9884 (Jun 22, 2013): 2135,http://search.proquest.com/docview/1372100749?accountid=458 (accessed October 8, 2013), pp 88- 99

19«DRAMATIC CHANGES IN GLOBAL ATTITUDES TOWARD DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.» US Fed News Service, Including US State News, Apr 25, 2013, http://search.proquest.com/docview/1345886743?accountid=458 (accessed October 8, 2013), pp 342

20Medical News Today. «Analysis Of Domestic Violence Deaths.» 2007.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/88158.php (accessed 12 Oct 2013), pp 122- 156

21Ver Steegh, Nancy. «Differentiating Types of Domestic Violence: Implications for Child Custody.» Louisiana Law Review 65, no. 4 (July 15, 2005): 1379-1431. Legal Source, EBSCOhost (accessed October 8, 2013), pp 77

22Medical News Today. «Analysis Of Domestic Violence Deaths.» 2007.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/88158.php (accessed 12 Oct 2013), pp 122- 156

23
Medical News Today. «Analysis Of Domestic Violence Deaths.» 2007.http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/88158.php (accessed 12 Oct 2013), pp 57- 65

24Lancet, The. «Violence Against Women: Ending the Global Scourge.» The Lancet 381, no. 9884(Jun 22, 2013): 2135,http://search.proquest.com/doc view/1372100749?accountid=458 (accessed October 8, 2013), pp 123

25Medical News Today. «Analysis Of Domestic Violence Deaths.» 2007.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/88158.php (accessed 12 Oct 2013), pp 122- 156