Research essay Example

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12Societal Bilingualism

Societal Bilingualism

Macro- and Micro-Context

Bilingual educationalprogram in Indonesia

As
the
swing of paradigm on the
educational
context in Indonesia, as a result, of change
role of English language to be an international
language in the global era, the Indonesian government through the
ministry of education
makes
effort in establishing English to be the
target
language among the locals. As
the
language of technology, the
government
made
efforts among the
citizens to maximally acquire
it through the
introduction of a bilingual school
programs as an innovative effort. These
programs
were to be implemented in elementary
schools
and
secondary
school levels embodying three prominent
school
types’ namely
junior, senior
and vocational high
schools. Utilization of English a means of communication will enable
the
students to attain
high levels of proficiency in English as well as global perspectives. This is thus
essential to help them in figuring out global challenges that will demand
skilled
and
educated
individuals in the global era. Nevertheless, the
use of English as a means of communication in the classroom by the bilingual teachers will facilitate
the
students to be accustomed to English use in an educational
context
that
help in generating a bilingual mind on the
students
part (Duflo, 2004). This is crucial as the
learners
have a meaningful English learning
process in dealing with the English materials of selected
subjects, as well as the classroom communication
practices. The utilization of two languages in combination with educational
programs
strengthens
the
concept of the
meaning of the
subject that is learned
and as well
helps in the
establishment of an automatic translating system in the
learner’s brain (Bartlett, 2007).

Indonesia republic
act advocates that
the Indonesian government
authorities, as well as the
local
government, needs to establish a unit of education that holds
the
standards of national
and
international levels of education. Thus, every
province in the
country
needs to establish a bilingual class
program from elementary level to secondary
school level. Educational
programs in bilingualism ought to aim at facilitating
the
students to gain
higher
language global perspectives as well as enable
the
children to acquire English as the
target
language
because
it is an international
language that is used in many
fields i.e. technology, education, trade, information
and
communication
and
social
culture (Mullen, 2012). Implementation of bilingual education in Indonesia commenced in the
year 2004 and has gained
strong
popularity in the
last
years. About 1300 schools
have
since
been
established since the
campaign
referred to as international
standardized
schools by 2012. However, the bilingual program has received
a lot of
critics by parties that argue
arguing
that
the
program has led to discrimination between the
rich
and
the
poor as the
international
standardized
schools
providing bilingualism are mostly
assessed by the
rich
rather than the
poor. In addition, the bilingual students are treated in relation to their school
facilities
and
academic
issues as compared to the non-bilingual students. This
further
complicating
the
situation. Parties
have
taken
the
case into judicial
review under the
act of law on the implementation of a bilingual class program. In regard to the
matter, the Indonesian judicial
court
agreed
that
the abolishment of the bilingual class
program on the
basis
that
it
violates
the
basic
laws of the Indonesian republic. However, diplomats
and
supporting
authorities
emphasize on the
importance of a bilingual class
program
for
the
students
if
only
they are going to face
the global challenges. Concerning
the
issue
the
paper
provides an educational
design
program as well as designing an assessment
program of the bilingual education that is currently a major
controversial
issue in Indonesia (Rolstad, 2005).

A Description of the Bilingual Program

Bilingual education
refers to the utilization of two languages a means of presentation of the classroom instructions of the
selected
subjects. The two languages ought to include a minor
language
and a major
language. From the
educational
program
design, a
minor
language is Indonesian while
the
major
language is English. English will be used as a the
selected
means of classroom instructions
for
the
students in the
program. The bilingual program
chosen
aims at ensuring
that all the Indonesian citizen
have an even
distribution of educational
opportunities, there is enrichment of the
elite through bilingualism, enhancement of the
world
communication
increased
mutual
understanding as well as pluralism awareness (Rolstad, 2005). The
objectives are ensuring
quality
improvement, relevance
and
efficiency in education
management to face
the
local, national
and global challenges
facing
the
people. The
program
also
aims to promote
the
graduates of secondary
school in facing
the global demands as well as establishing
the
students to become elite multi-linguals or bi-lingual who
have
the
capability of using
different
languages at different
contexts on the
grounds
that
having
the
knowledge of different
languages, they
will be able to survive in the globalization strands.
These
strands
will
require
high English proficiency in making
contacts with people from different
countries
coming from different
social, cultural
and
linguistic
backgrounds. Thus, the bilingual program
will
help in fostering
understanding
and
development on the
individuals (Bhatia & Ritchie, 2008).

To successfully
implement
the
program, it is important to carry out some of the
challenges that are facing bilingual programs. This
entails
the
challenges
the bilingual teachers of the
secondary in teaching English language. Thus, the
teachers
need to be actively involved in training
programs as well as other innovative programs are i.e. sending them abroad, facilitating them to improve on their education level as a measure of enhancing the
process. This is essential in equipping
the bilingual teachers with competence in handling
the
learning
and
teaching
processes
effectively
using
the two languages
namely Indonesian and English taking English as the
dominant of the two to be used as the
means of classroom interaction. Besides, the
program
will
promote
the bilingual school
and
equip
the bilingual class with modern
equipment as a measure of enabling
both
the bilingual student
and
the
teacher to be autonomous during the
learning
process. This is the importance in ensuring the success of the
program. In terms of progress, the implementation of bilingual educated
started
back in 2006 and has gained
much
popularity in the
past
years. Thus, the
program
will
work
hard in hard in collaboration with the
already
established
schools
and
supporting programmes to ensure
that
the bilingual educational
program
becomes a success(Rivera Mindt et al., 2008). To counter the levels of critics
raised between discrimination of the
rich
and
the
poor
because
the
rich could only
afford
the
education, the
program
will
work to bridge
the
gap
and
ensure
that
even
the
children from the
poor
family
have
access to bilingual education.
This is crucial, as educational
programs in bilingualism ought to aim at facilitating all the
students irrespective of the
background, in gaining
higher
language global perspectives as well as enable them to acquire English as the
target
language
because
it is an
international
language that is used in many
fields i.e. technology and
education (Bialystok, 2001).

In terms of the
perceived
benefits of bilingual education, it
needs to be aimed in the
establishment of addictive bilinguals in the
sense
that
students
need to achieve two languages
proficiency (Mullen, 2012). This
includes
the
first
and
the
target
language that is directed to be the
substitute of the
first
language. The
educational
program
design can be analyzed
into three perspectives; namely
being transitional, providing
enrichment
and
maintenance to the
students. In the transitional model
teaching
and
learning is by use of the bilingual languages. However, the
teachers in the classroom dominantly employ
the
target
language in the
approach
while
the
first
language
is used in teaching
the
basic
learners. The
educational
program
however has to ensure bilingual education
is not constrained by the curriculum, the
teaching methodology, use of languages
used in the
learning
activities, as well as the
number of students
using a particular
language in the classroom (Edwards, 2012).

Models of bilingual educationfortheprogram

Models to be utilized
for
the
educational
program are transitional bilingual model, maintenance bilingual model, submersion and immersion models. The
educational
program
will
utilize
the transitional bilingual program
where
the
first
language
will be the
medium of communication
for
the
students
for
the
first
few
years in school. During this
period, English as the
target
language is taught
and
eventually there will be a shift to the
second
language to be the
means of conveying
instructions in the classroom, which will be gradual (de Jong, 2002). Another
model to be utilized in the
educational
program
will be the utilization maintenance bilingual programs. The
programs are very
essential in the development of literacy
skills at both
language i.e. native
and
second
language
thus enhancing bilateral-fostering development. It is important to maintain
the
use of the
native
language throughout the
program as it
provides
the
basis of learning
the
target
language. Submersion programs are very
important
for
the
educational
program. In the
model, the
language
instruction ought not to the
Indonesian
language to some of the students
but
will be considered
the
first to the
rest. This is so
especially
when
new
immigrants
enters
the
school
and can only
be taught in their own
language. This is essential
for
the
education
program to incorporate
and
met
all
the
needs of each
student
regardless their status. Eventually, they
absorb English as they
focus on the
subject
matter (Bialystok, 2010). Immersion models ought to be incorporated in the
educational
program. They are meant to immerse
students in a language that is different from the
ultimate
native
language. Their main
goal is building
strong
academic
literacy
skills in the
target
language as well as enabling
the
learners
have
access to the
subject
matter
taught in the
second
language. The
first
language is Indonesian in this
scenario, but
the
method of conveying
instruction to be utilized is English. However, all
the
models are similar because they
grade
appropriate level for
academic
achievement (Wei, 2009). They also ensure
that there is functional
proficiency in the
target
language
and as well
will
enhance
appreciation
and
understanding
for
the
culture of the
target
language
group?

A Description of the Bilingual Assessment

Assessment ought to play a very
essential
role in every
aspect of the
educational
program
especially
for
the
limited English proficient students. It is important in identification of the
students
who
need
the
program
more than others and
putting them in the correct levels of the
program. Assessment is also
essential in monitoring
the
progress of the
students, improving
the
program that serves them and in the determination on when
the
program
is no
longer
needed. The
paper will offer an assessment
program
for
the
limited English proficient students in Indonesia. However, it
provides a foundation on issues
that the program
planners ought to consider
when
selecting their assessment
approaches
formulated around the
importance of testing bilingual education
and English as the
target
language. Different
assessment
instruments
are described in the
program
describing
language
proficiency, achievement
testing as well as assessment
for
special
education (Bedore & Peña, 2008).

Researchquestionsfortheassessmenttool

Research question considered in the assessment tool testing bilingual education include:

  1. Whether the language of assessment has any influence on the bilingual children’s performance

  2. Whether a difference exist in the bilingual children performance when using either verbal or non-verbal assessment procedures

  3. If any multiple measurements and informants ought to enhance the construct validity in making assessment decisions

  4. Whether the evaluator prior knowledge, the conceptualization of measurement constrains as well as cultural and linguistic backgrounds has any influence on the assessment decisions.

Instrumentation fortheprogram

Thehomelanguage survey— among the
instruments
for
the
program is the utilization of the
home
language
survey. The
survey
was
developed by Gonzalez and consists of openly
headed
question
and linker scales
involving
the
parents in the
assessment
process. The
parents will self-rate their Indonesian and English proficiency, rate their children Indonesian and English proficiency, rate
the
frequency of use at home of Indonesian and English, provide
the
ages of the
children at their homes as well as well as provide
background
information of the
parents to identify their identity. All the self-rating assessment i.e. on the English proficiency, rate of language
use will be assessed in a total of 10 points (Sanchez et al., 2013).

Teachersandparentsratingscale of creativity (TPRSC)— similar to the
home
language
survey
but
consist of seven open-ended
questions
asking
the respondents to describe
the
children linguistic, problem
solving, individual
and
group
working
and
playing
abilities both at home
and
at
school. The
teachers
and
the
guardians ought to provide descriptors for their children
abilities as well
provide
additional
comments (Shin, 2000).

Qualitative utilization of English and Indonesian tasks (QUEIT)- involves
determination of usage of English and Indonesian tasks to determine their proficiency. A
model
explaining
the
concept
formation
process upon the bilingual children
and
identifies
the
knowledge representational systems that are dependent on the
particular
linguistic, cognitive,, as well as cultural
characteristics of the content learned. The
first conceptual representation
system is universal, abstract
and non-verbal while
the
second
abstract
verbal, semantic
and linguistically-culturally bound. The cognitive ought to be considered as abstract
knowledge
representations
installed in the
cultural
symbolic
systems, as well as the
linguistic
structures
and
markers. Cultural
and
linguistic
elements
were
selected
because Indonesian’s assigns lot of linguistic
gender
for
inanimate
and
animate conceptual categories that correspond to the culturally symbolic
distinctions
expressed through linguistic markers
and
rules. However, in
the
contrary, English only
assigns
linguistic
gender to only
some
animate conceptual, abstract
categories. Thus, verbal
and non-verbal classifications are designed
assessing
the bilingual children linguistic and
general
gender
and conceptual processes (Sanchez et al., 2013).

Thelanguageassessmentscale, oral (LAS-O)

Three language
assessment
scales will be used
for
the
program. The pre-language assessment
scale
for
the
young
children
approximately four to six years of age, LAS-O1 for
elementary
grade levels as well as the LAS-O11 for
the
secondary level. It will be self-administered representing
the
oral
language
tasks i.e. supplying
the
correct
vocabulary
for
pictures
and
objects, give
appropriate respondent to tasks
and
questions as well as the
provision of oral
language to picture
stimuli to determine
the English proficiency on the
students (McKay, 2006). The
tasks ought to be scored on the
basis
or
either
the
right
or
wrong
answers during a separate category that will account
for
half of the
score
utilizing a scale of 5 0r 100. The
language
assessment
scale classify the
students in the
broad
categories that are non-English speaking students, English speaking student
and
the
fluent speaking. It is important
for a number of purposes. It
is used in the
initial
identification of the
limited English-speaking students
thus
additional
and alternative programs
and
services will be provided to improve their proficiency. However, depending on the
structure of the alternative program, it can be utilized in the
placement of the
students in different instructional groupings. Thus will act as a track on the
annual
progress in oral English proficiency
and
used as a criterion
for re-designing the
students to be no longer limited in English and eligible for
existing in the
program. The
language
assessment
scale two kinds of score
the
proficiency level 1-5 and
the
converted
scores to 100. The levels of proficiency will be utilized in categorizing
the
student’s eligibility to the bilingual school
program as well as provision of data depicting
the
characteristics of the bilingual schools (Fall, Adair-Hauck, & Glisan, 2007).

Conclusion

There is a controversial
debate in the implementation of bilingual education
programs in Indonesia. However, it is clear
that bilingual programs in the
country from the
elementary to the
secondary
school level could be very
beneficial in the facilitation of the
students in facing
the global challenges as the bilingual education
program
establish
qualified
and
competitive
students
the
meet
the global demand. The
paper
provides an education
program
reducing
and
discouraging
the
discrimination
existing among the Indonesian societal members
and
the bilingual schools that resulted to banning bilingual programs in the
country. In the
context, it is important
for
the
involved
parties to think
deeply on the
preserved
benefits of bilingual education. More over bilingual education
programs are important
in in enhancing the meta-cognitive awareness
and cognitive development of the
students. Thus, it is crucial to look
for an
appropriate
measure of dealing with the
problems
facing bilingual educational
programs. Setting
up
and
executing an assessment
program
for a bilingual program is not an easy
task. It
requires
consideration of many
factors as well as a comprehensive
assessment
program
involving
staff at different levels. The
home
language
survey, the
language
assessment
scale, Qualitative utilization of English and Indonesian tasks
and
teachers
and
parents
rating
scale of creativity are described in the
assessment
program
fostering bilingual education. The utilization of English a means of communication among the
people of Indonesia will enable
the
individuals
in attaining a
high levels of English proficiency
as well as global perspectives. This is thus
essential to help them in figuring out global challenges that will demand
skilled
and
educated
individuals in the global era.

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