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Religions of the Ancient World-Introducing Egypt: the Historical and Geographical Background Essay Example

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Egypt’s history was wide in that it included the old, middle and the new era kingdom according to scholars, it had a lot of continuous developmental changes and it experienced civilization in several different ways and was among the top most countries with a centralized political system. The king was the determinant of the Social and political development of the country other than the market forces.

Important events that facilitated the emergence of Egyptian civilization include: The desert was void and it was the natural centre for civilization, from it the development of land was visible. The prehistoric bay was formed of three layers stone the oldest that included the diorite, granite and quartz, the middle layer is made up of sandstone and the top layer is made up of shale’s, sedimentary limestone and clay they are found in the western desert oases. The northern part was submerged more than the southern and was made up of a thick layer of limestone. Uplands were important in the economy as trade routes were found deep in the desert. The western part of the desert made away to West Africa as the oases had large depression that made their own moisture to flowing spring that produced raw materials that were highly purchased at the Nile valley. The western part was known for dates and was the main source of antiquity for Natrona used as a preservative and detergent.

The river is made up of the white and blue Nile the two rivers helped in shaping the environment and it’s one of the latest developments lake Victoria waters makes up the Nile river waters ,the river valleys were used for cultivation because they were separated from the high desert. The rivers made the climate to be moisturized .The summer floods that came in September from the White Nile made basin agriculture to be practiced and silt was deposited from the floods (gift of the Nile) plus further erosion of the banks river brought up abed of fertile soil that’s a major positive side effect. The floods that came up seasonally formed levees and basins that led to the settlement of human beings and agricultural growth. The agricultural potential was not stable up to the middle kingdom the unused terrain was reclaimed and cultivatable.

During that time the king’s effort twelfth dynasty to wipe out the Bahr Yusuf channel and restore and reclaim projects by the Ptolemies increased the extent of arable land. At the time of the new kingdom the population of Faiyum rose to 300,000the same is so even nowadays because the area has rich plantations and vineyards of flowers and fruit trees. The moisturized climatic condition of pre historic times sustained animal and plant life in the delta region compared to the rest of Egypt it was known for hunting gazelles, antelopes and other small animals, for bird’s catches and fishing. Delta was meant for gardens, vineyards and cattle grazing as well as trade and some foreign activities Egypt’s horizon extended after sometime as deltas harbor gained productivity, thus making the Libyans to migrate to Egypt. During the time of pharaoh the river was used by travelers, government officials and business and cargo vessels. There was transformation from basin farming to perennial irrigation this brought permanent prosperity to Delta as the river was the central place of all activities.


Basically both the rivers and the surrounding desert are natural resources that were put to use so that Egypt’s civilization could be enhanced the two depended on interaction between each other as shown above.


Brewer, D. & Teeter, E., 2007, Egypt and the Egyptians; A chronology and history of Egypt, Chapter 3, pp.30-59, 2nd edition, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Murname, W.J., 1983, The Penguine guide to ancient Egypt, The land and the river Chapter 1, 17-24, London, Allen Lane.