Reflective Journals

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This is a A1 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 1.2

Three environmental cues (James, 2012):

  • Mode of dressing

  • Type of gathering

  • Body language

When I enter into a meeting where people are formally dressed, I usually expect formal communication. This is especially in a business meeting where dressing code depicts a serious communication session. I always expect people to dress according to the context. Through the type of dressing, I am able to determine the type of language to use and how to behave. The type of the event also dictates the type of communication. I always base the type of communication with the type of gathering. For example, I expect a celebration mood in a wedding gathering while a business meeting I expect a serious mood. This is due to fact that communication in a wedding is very different from communication in a business. Factors such as culture and language also play part in determining the type of communication. Lastly, body language determines type of communication. The way in which the person leading communication uses body language will set the context. I expect nonverbal communication to help in giving a clue on how to interact with the speaker.

This is a 1.4 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 1.2

NLP communication model is made up of two basic hypotheses which are: mode of communication and transformation. It is important for us to make changes on our characters so that we can easily communicate with other in an easy manner. The NLP model analyses the existing relationship between an external event and the existing internal situation of body and mind. Through NLP model, it becomes easy to behave in a rational according to external events. Thus, NLP model is all about how one makes sense of world and the resultant behaviour which manifest.

This is a A2 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 1.2

Communicator has a responsibility towards the audience. The first responsibility is being prepared. This includes clarity, conciseness and punctuality. This implies that one must select the appropriate topic for the audience, have sufficient information in a logical manner and present it in best possible way. The second responsibility from the communicator is ethics. This is having the best conduct based on principals and rules. The audience is also supposed to have responsibility to the speaker. The audience has a role to pay attention, answer questions, ask questions, respond and evaluate. If the audience does not do their share, the communication cannot be a success. Giving a speech is worthless if the audience is not attentive. The audience has to show that they are there both physically and mentally. It is also important for the audience to be respectful and courteous. This makes the communication to be delivered in the best way possible (James, 2012).

This is a A5 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 1.2

Article from NBC:

Four Questions That Could Decide Who Wins 2016 Election

Analysing this article based on five part structure starts with attention statement. This is the statement that has been used to capture the audience attention. The statement used for attention in this case is “Four Questions That Could Decide Who Wins 2016 Election”. This captures the attention of those following USA elections in a good way. After having the audience attention, the article moves to introduction. The author starts by showing why the topic is important since the country is gearing towards full election. After introduction, the article moves to the body of the message. The article presents the message in details using clear points and supports them with evidence. Transitions are used in guiding readers from one point to the other. Elections are looked at in details between two competitors. The author then looks at the four questions which are claimed to help in determining who can win. All these claims are supported using statistics and appropriate literature. At the end, the article fails to use a conclusion which would summarise the main points. The article ends with the fourth question and fails to remind the audience on what they have just covered. It is thus not possible for the article to give the audience a psychological closure (James, 2012).


This is a A6 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 2.4

I do not think double speak is justifiable in communication. This is due to fact that it obscures the real meaning and hence makes communication ineffective. It also leads to ethical issues when it dehumanizes humans. It is important to note that the goal is to have communication which has no misinterpretation. This can only be attained if the form of communication used is clear and concise (James, 2012).

Double speak is a barrier and a major contributor to misunderstanding in communication. For example, in a business communication, there is need for clear and concise communication. Using double speak in business communication may lead to poor conveyance of message. It will act as an obstacle making it hard to reach the intended goal. Another example is when breaking news. If news are broken using double speak, there are high chances that some of the listeners will not get the message clearly. This may lead to grapevine among other disastrous consequences. Also, when making a business deal, the information given to both parties must be clear. This shows that double speak should not be used in communication and is never justifiable in effective communication (James, 2012).


This is a A7 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 2.5

The signposts used in this article are:

  • Take a look

  • Unlike other

  • In addition

The signposts help in alerting the audience in changing topic, explanation and examples. The word “take a look” is used in alerting the audience on more explanation. It gives examples of the issues that affect the communities. It further goes on to explain that at least one of the social ills mentioned is caused by alcohol. The word “perhaps” is a signpost used to explain the extent in which alcohol has become a major enemy of the natives. This makes sure that the readers do not lose their pace in the discussion. Another signalling word used in this article is “unlike other”. This is a signalling word that signals a change in the previous topic. It seeks to differentiate natives and other communities on their experience with alcohol. It also acts as an explanation on the history of alcohol on the Native Americans. “In addition” is a signal phrase used in adding more explanation. It offers a tangential explanation on role of culture in alcohol abuse among the Aborigines (Bentley, 2013). These signposts helps the readers to keep in pace with the writer and not forget the main discussion points in the article. They also signal when a change is coming (James, 2012).


This is a A10 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 3.1

The field of psychology offers principles on interaction between expectations and performance. According to psychology, we form expectations of people and events. These expectations are communicated through different cues which can be verbal or non-verbal. To respond to these cues, people are forced to adjust their behaviours. Through the self-fulfilling prophecy, the expectations that the audience have for the speaker may lead to the speaker behaving in a given manner with an aim of conforming to the expectations. In this case, the self-fulfilling prophecy has two people-the audience and speaker. The expectancy according to physiology becomes a cause and what is expected becomes true. Thus, psychology shows that the belief of one person about another can eventually lead to confirmation. It shows that people have an active role in shaping and creating social realities. Through self-fulfilling prophecy, it is possible to influence interactions and situations. The way in which the audience expects the speaker to communicate may impact the communication delivery. In fact, it is possible for the expectations to have real consequences (James, 2012).


This is a A11 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 3.2

Perception can limit our view in a great way. This is due to fact that perceptions are influenced by selection, organisation and interpretation of words. They are also influenced by individual differences and notions which are preconceived. We select to pay attention to only what seems important to us. In this case, we focus on one area and limit our attention to other areas or ignore them. Perceptions also lead to jumping to a conclusion unaware which may lead to a communication barrier (James, 2012).

The truth is we form our own perceptions based on our surrounding, taste, smell and touch. In case we see that what is around conflicts without perception, there are high chances that we judge and label based on our perceptions. There is a lot which perception can limit us from. Perceptions leads to a view based on one’s personality and hence we chose how we perceive things. Every person has a different perception and choses what they want and what they don’t want. Our perceptions are always influenced by what we select or perceive to be of importance. For example, a student may perceive a topic to be hard and chose to read it fully (James, 2012).


This is a A12 paragraph response to the second Journal question under module 3.5

From the reading, there are four main types of listening styles: people, action, content and time (Courtland, 2003).

In this case, the listener is interested in the speaker. The listener listens to the message with aim of learning from speaker on how they think and feel. The listen in this case is more interested in the speaker than the message. More attention is paid to the speaker than to the message being given which is a major drawback of this type of listener. The message which is important may be ignored (Courtland, 2003).

This is a listener who is more interested in what the speaker wants. In this case the listener may fail to listen to the message. Another drawback is the fact that the listener may fail to listen to evidence, explanations and descriptions in which the speaker is using to build their speech. The listener also lacks patient to listen to the evidence being given and focus on the action only (Courtland, 2003).

This is where the listener is only interested in the message only. The listener looks whether the message is accurate, sensible and determines its meaning. This form of listening is beneficial since it looks for credibility in the message delivered. It becomes possible for the listeners to gain an accurate view. The listeners demands for well-developed information and explanations (Courtland, 2003).

This type of listeners prefers a message that is on point. The disadvantages are that listeners may become impatient if the message is long. The listeners are also rude or hostile when the speakers want a longer attention. They also fail to listen to message if it is long. The main advantage is the method of listening helps time constrained listeners (Courtland, 2003).


This is a A15 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 4.4

The choice of words and language used in a document is determined by the audience. The style in use is influenced by the main purpose of the document and expected audience. For a business meeting, the audience expects formal communication. A message to a friend may use colloquial language. This includes use of colourful expressions and slang. Communication and written messages to family and close friends may be casual. This involves using words and expressions that are familiar to the group context (James, 2012). For example, I will consider informing my superior that I will not be able to report for job and informing my friend about my sickness. For my superior, I will use formal communication.

Dear Sir,

RE: Asking for Sick Leave

I kindly request for a day-off due to sickness. I am suffering from flu and will be visiting my physician. I have contacted my colleague in the department and informed them of my absence. This will ensure that my work for today is assigned to avoid backlog.

Kind Regards

To my friend:

Hi pal, I am not okay. I am going to the hospital for a check-up at the moment. See u later.

The formal communication to my superior is professionally written and follows protocols. It is written to enhance formal mood unlike a note to a friend.


This is a A16 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 4.5

A sales letter to Middle Eastern culture

Dear customers,

It is announced that Meridian Company with a 10 years’ experience in manufacturing and exporting perfumes will be having a sale. Meridian company has been providing high quality perfumes to different companies and customising them. The firm is well known for their branded perfumes which won an award last year.

The company will be selling their perfumes in their Dubai shop at reduced prices on 1st October 2016. The first hundred customers will be given a free coupon to spend on the firm high quality perfumes.

The offer lasts for three months, if interested please call us on:

Or mail us on:

Meridian Business Company.

The letter starts by frequently talking about themselves and what they have achieved in the industry. This is common in the Middle Eastern culture where the firm has to represent itself as successful. This is attained through highlighting the firm achievements and experience in selling its perfumes in different companies. This is very different from the western culture. Most of the Middle Eastern residents are Muslims and the culture is multidimensional (Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 2011). In the region, consumers judges a firm based on time it has been on business as well as its achievements.


This is a A20 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 6.5

A good speaker should always know their audience. This requires having knowledge on the speaking principles and cross cultural awareness. The message should be tailored to the specific audience. It is important to know that a diverse audience have their expectation from the speaker which may vary. This calls for the speaker to choose a topic that is appealing to the audience. This is something that catches interest of everyone in the audience and can lead to a spark of curiosity. An appropriate topic must be suitable for the audience norms, interests, customs and expectations. The speech should be free from ethnocentrism, prejudice, stereotypes and must be culturally appropriate (James, 2012). An example is giving a speech on a global audience consisting of different faiths, education backgrounds, nationality and races. In UN meetings, there is no reference to religious beliefs and speeches are centred on the issue at hand. Another example is a global meeting to discuss terrorism. In such a forum, the speaker should avoid bigotry, associating any country present with terrorism and victimizing a community. Obama gave a speech at Cairo University which was highly commended. This is due to his respect and sensitivity towards his host audience culture (Wilson, 2009).


This is a A21 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 7.1

It is important to consider the rhetorical situation. This is due to fact that by understanding the rhetorical situation, one is able to come up with the best ways to address the listeners and communicate the point. Through this, one is able to make the important transition from the speaker to the members of audience. Without having an audience, there is no speech. The audience creates space and time which is needed to fulfil a speech. An audience is what makes a speaker. Considering the rhetorical situation helps one to become a successful speaker. An understanding of rhetorical situation acts as a guide in planning how to use various strategies which acts as guide to listeners as they interpret the message. It makes it possible to fully focus on the task at hand. This makes it vital to consider the rhetorical situation (James, 2012).


This is a A23 paragraph response to the second Journal question under module 7.2

Organizing a presentation involves ethics. This is due to fact that a speaker is expected to be ethical. This is through respecting the listeners, ensuring there is no prejudice, being honest and avoiding personal bias. When organizing a presentation, it must be credible. The presentation must be respectful and trusted. This involves organizing the presentation in a manner that the audience is treated the way one would want to be treated. During organisation of a presentation, one may be tempted to eliminate information which may be perceived negative. This may lead to inaccurate information which is one sided. The speaker is supposed to organise information to ensure that it is complete and honest. Thus, it is important to involve ethics when organizing a presentation (Courtland, 2003).


This is a A24 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 7.3

Five main parts of a speech are: attention statement, introduction, body, conclusion, and residual message (James, 2012).

This is a speech by president Obama at Cairo University. The speech was commended for being respectful and sensitive to the host audience. The first part of a speech is attention statement. This is the statement which sets the way one focus the audience attention on speech and speaker. In this case Obama attention statement was using a common salutation used among the Muslims “assalaamu alaykum”.

Introduction is supposed to introduce the topic. At this point, a relationship with the audience is established and topic stated clearly. Obama introduced the topic in a clear manner stating that he was honoured to be in Cairo and being hosted by two institutions. He thanked the audience for their hospitality and praised Cairo University as a source of advancement in Egypt. The topic he introduced was based on a new beginning with US based on shared interests. The body has the main content of the area of speech. The body has analysed how US and Egypt will work together for mutual benefit. The conclusion of the speech gave a sense of closure. This is through summarizing main points which were raised. The residual message from the speech was a new beginning between Egypt and USA. This is through empathising on need for both countries to work together for mutual benefit (Wilson, 2009).


Bentley, A. 2013. Alcohol: It’s Different for Native America.
Native Partnership.
Retrieved 12th September 2016 from,

Chinni, D. 2016. Four Questions That Could Decide Who Wins 2016 Election. NBC News. Retrieved 12th September 2016 from, -wins-2016-election-n588406

Courtland, L. B. 2003. Contemporary Public Speaking, (1st Ed.). Faculty of Business, Government & Law: University of Canberra.

James S. O’. 2012. Management Communication, (1st Ed.). Faculty of Business, Government & Law: University of Canberra.

Trompenaars, F. and Hampden-Turner, C., 2011. Riding the waves of culture: Understanding diversity in global business. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Wilson, S. 2009. Obama Calls On Muslims for a ‘New Beginning’ With U.S. Washington Post. Retrieved 12th September 2016 from, 01024.html