Reflective Journal for Tourism. Essay Example

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Reflective Journal 1: Workplace Health and Safety, and PPE

Personal Reflection

On a personal point of view, the management styles that improve my productivity in terms of work include advocating for objectivity. I believe in fostering harmony among staff in any organizational establishment. Creating harmony within a working environment instills freedom for creativity, and provides motivation. By placing workers above my needs, provides an opportunity to learn from their experiences, and improve my productivity. Being affiliated to nature allows me to learn from other co-workers regardless of their lower rank. However, this affiliation may result in agitation especially when results are not forthcoming. It is a fact that, as a manager, an affiliation style may not provide direction in times of crisis. As a result of frustration, one’s productivity is affected.

The best means of encouraging employees involves leading from the front, by providing direction through constructive engagement with employees. Encouraging employees require a democratic and paternalistic style of management. In addition to providing direction, a manager needs to attend to the needs and views of workers. Every manager aspires to work with a contented staff. To improve worker motivation, it is important for managers to consult frequently with their workers and listen to issues they raise. However, in the end, it is vital that the manager makes the final or actual decision. In terms of being democratic, managers need to trust decisions made by employees for purposes of improving productivity. To manage in a democratic manner, entails an effective two-way interaction. This involves open discussions to come up with a solution that benefits the organization in general. Further, managing in a democratic way requires higher ranking staff to encourage the growth of leadership skills among subordinates. Conversely, there are constraints to improving employee productivity. From a personal point of view, lack of co-operation among workers is an impediment to improving productivity. Further, jostling for plum positions may impact negatively on new staff relying on older staff to improve their skills. As a manager, the areas I would change to improve my management ability involves self control dealing with frustrations in time of crisis. This helps to minimize panic within the entire organization. Further, it is important to engage workers in constructive discussion, but maintain authority and direction suitable for moving the organization forward. To effect the highlighted changes require attending counseling to practice anger management, conduct regular workshop to induct staff and set up ethical standards for the organization.

Topical Discussion

In terms of maintaining WHS in the tourism industry, the role of the management either at organizational or project level involve, taking a leading role on all precautionary measures. At the organizational level, the management needs to consider both safety of workers and that of their clients. The hospitality industry mainly relies in providing efficient services in order to attract a large clientele. On this note, the management needs to ensure that staff works in a clean environment. Further, the safety of workers from rogue clients is the prerogative of the management. On the same note, the management should ensure the safety of customers from exploitation by staff (O’Neill, Watson and McKenna, 1994, p. 36). Employees in the hospitality industry are susceptible to exploitation from supervisors. At the organizational level, the management plays a significant role in protecting the welfare of employees. Further, the management should ensure employees are entitled to their benefits. The hospitality industry provides employment opportunity to permanent, part-time or casual jobs. Regardless of the job specification, the management is charged with the responsibility of ensuring the well-being of all employees. The management also need to ensure that areas such as the Kitchen, reception, bar sections are clean, and does not present a risk to the staff. It is also the responsibility of the management to provide proper equipment to staff (Murray-Gibbons and Gibbons, 2007, p. 35). Experience is essential in the hospitality industry, and as a result, the management should make sure their staff is properly trained. Further, it is important for the management to maintain a record for injuries. The management has a responsibility to inform the staff about hazards for purposes of maintaining safety at workplace (Harrington, 2010, p. 45).

However, managers face challenges in initiating WHS within the tourism industry. Among the challenges include claims of maltreatment. There are workers who might be uncomfortable with the rules related WHS. As a result, they are likely to incite others to rebel against the set rules related to WHS. The other challenge involves taking care of the employee’s welfare due to lack of sufficient funds. In addition, it is also a difficult task providing orientation to untrained worker. The managers or supervisors can address these challenges by ensuring strict adherence to the ethical standards within the hospitality industry. The management may also consider advising employees to form associations where, they are able to negotiate fairly for their demands. In service training is also important for untrained workers to understand WHS within the hospitality industry (Lo and Lamm, 2005, p. 23).

As a tourist venue, a crowded beach may compromise worker and public safety measures. This is because; most beach sites are managed by various hotels. The challenges faced range from maintaining proper hygiene to lack of security for the tourist. The working environment for the staff is not safe due to uncontrolled crowd. The public, on the other hand, is exposed to the dangers posed by the sea such as waves. In addition, with fewer workers serving a large clientele, the tedious work may affect their health. The public in such setting is also exposed to a wide range of infection resulting from a contaminated environment (Lo and Lamm, 2005, p. 23). The challenges faced by workers and the public in general with regard to safety are manageable by controlling the number of people visiting beach sites at one time. The hotels managing beach should focus on acquiring the services of coast guards to minimize dangers posed to beach enthusiasts. The management of this beach sites should also provide visitors with protective gears. On the part of employees, the management should ensure they work in a safe environment, and are not mistreated by tourists or other visitors at the beach site (Madera and Yin-Lin, 2011, p.354-364).


Harrington, M 2010, ‘Know Your Health and Safety Obligations’, Caterer & Hotelkeeper, vol. 200 no. 4628, pp. 44- 45.

Lo, K & Lamm, F 2005, ‘Occupational Stress in the Hospitality Industry-An Employment Relations Perspective’, New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, vol. 30 no. 1, pp. 23.

Madera, J M & Yin-Lin, C 2011, ‘Job Injury Issues Among Hispanic Immigrant Employees in Hospitality Operations,’ Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 354- 364

Murray-Gibbons, R & Gibbons, C 2007, ‘Occupational Stress in the Chef Profession’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 19 no. 1, pp. 32-42.

O’Neill, M, Watson, H & McKenna, M 1994, ‘Service Quality in the Northern Ireland Hospitality Industry’, Managing Service Quality, vol. 4 no. 3, pp. 36

Reflective Journal 2: Marketing – B2B marketing

Personal Reflection

My decision to join UWS was informed by the need to gain knowledge in relation to my career choice. Developing work skills require training so as to improve as a professional in my field of choice. The education system at UWS suits my needs and I believe the knowledge imparted at UWS will instill in me the right ingredients required in the job market. Competition for job placement is high, and employers prefer highly qualified candidates. This is a viable reason to seek further studies to improve in terms of personal and professional development. The factors that impacted on my decision include work promotion based on merit. As a result, I realized the need for further training to improve my credentials. The employment field is saturated with highly qualified job seekers. On this note, to compete at the same level with contemporaries entails upgrading my credentials. The process of deciding to join UWS was because of the institution’s reputation of producing highly skilled professionals. Employers are often drawn to job seekers from reputable institutions. My decision to join UWS was further influenced by co-workers and my family. The consultations helped in terms of weighing my options on the best institution to upgrade my education.

The challenges I face as a student involves combining work and education at the same time. This is challenging in terms of dealing with the workload from college and my workplace. I am able to overcome the challenges through practicing good time management. Proper management of time allows me to plan for office and college work.

Topical Discussion

Beach tourism is a viable business venture for holiday lovers especially, during summers. The summer period presents an opportunity for the tourism industry to improve business related to beach tourism. The tourism sector often engages in marketing other forms of attracting tourists while forgetting beach tourism. Opportunities to further develop the tourism industries involve diversification to other forms of attracting tourists both domestic and international. Beach tourism as a marketing product is likely to draw investors since it is a new area compared to other forms of tourism such as wildlife tourism (Radisic, 2010). Marketing beach tourism would involve convincing investors of its potential and sustainability. Investors are drawn to the idea of reaping high returns. In this regard, a marketing strategy aimed at convincing investors of the likely gains by investing in beach tourism is necessary. Beach tourism bring into fore the need for real estate investors. Targeting such investors is necessary in terms of constructing cottages to be used by beach enthusiasts during peak periods. Convincing investors in this sense would involve elaborating the benefits they would gain by acquiring beach plots in anticipation for prospective buyers at a profit later (Radisic, 2010).

Investors need to feel secure about their investment. This is important in terms increasing their investment on a particular venture. As a marketer, it is important to explain to the investors the current economic situation and other regulation that are required for both local and foreign investors. In addition, it is important to share with potential investors the projected returns from beach tourism during peak season and offseason (Appiah-Addu, Fyall & Singh, 2000). On the other hand, marketing the concept of beach tourism potential stakeholders would involve articulating the gains the project would achieve in the long term. The community and operatives within the tourism industry will be interested to know what they stand to gain from the project. Introducing beach tourism is a gain to the community since it will create employment opportunities and development of other necessary infrastructure. Social amenities in regions where the project is established would improve as part of advancing social corporate responsibility. On the other hand, the tourism industry stands to gain as a result of diversifying its products and reaching a wide range of tourism enthusiasts. Marketing the concept with businesses within the tourism industry helps in terms of competitiveness and provision of quality services to attract tourists to all forms of tourism. Attracting tourists depend on the services offered. Tourism companies can improve their businesses by carrying out marketing activities. Beach tourism is likely to earn tourism industry additional income during summers due to a high demand by enthusiasts. The businesses within the tourism industry complement each other. Tourism as an industry has numerous investment opportunities. This includes transport, accommodation, banking and real estate investment. Essentially, tourists visiting the beach will require transportation to the site, accommodation is vital especially for foreign tourists and the banks provide the tourists with easier means of currency exchange. Real estate investment, on the other hand, provides the much needed buildings to accommodate tourists (Appiah-Addu, Fyall & Singh, 2000).

Marketing as an educational tool, provides the interested parties on a particular venture the necessary information to make informed decisions. Conducting seminars and workshop provide another alternative to promote a new product. Using tools such as the internet democratizes business and learning. Entrepreneurs engage in business as a result of having expertise in a particular line. Coming up with a concept such as beach tourism entails sharing the details involved in the business (Eccles, 1995). Further, sharing information aids in developing the brand and enhance value. Marketing as an education tool enables people to buy a particular product from an informed choice. Individuals prefer products that add purpose and meaning to their lives. Selling beach tourism would require teaching people on gains of exploring beach tourism. In a rapidly developing world, individuals yearn for new developments. This involves accessing a source that keep people updated to current developments. In terms of marketing beach tourism, it is vital to keep prospective customers on the available spots they can visit. This provides tourists with a wide range of beach locations to visit. In essence, teaching gives people a reason to choose a product (Mircheska & Hristovska, 2010).

The role of local council in relation to ensuring stakeholder buy-in involve making sure that the local tourist investors and t he community get real buy-in. This may involve active participation in the project. Further, the local council should ensure only the bonafide stakeholders are involved in the project (Jamrozy, 2007).


Appiah-Addu, K, Fyall, A & Singh, S 2000, ‘Marketing Culture and Customer Retention in the Tourism Industry’, The Service Industries Journal, vol. 20 no. 2, pp. 95- 113.

Eccles, G 1995, ‘Marketing, Sustainable Development and International Tourism’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 7 no. 7, pp. 20.

Jamrozy, U 2007, ‘Marketing of Tourism: A Paradigm Shift towards Sustainability’, International Journal of Culture Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol.1 no. 2, pp. 117-130.

Mircheska, I & Hristovska, M 2010, The Internet Marketing-A Challenge for Fast Tourism Development. Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija, Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry.

Radisic, B 2010, Marketing Activities in Selling a Destination’s Tourism Product. Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management in Opatija, Biennial International Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry.

Reflective Journal 3: Communication and Interpersonal Skills

Personal Reflection

My education and work experience have allowed me to establish my communication strengths and weaknesses. With regards to face to face communication, my style involves responding to what the other party is saying by nodding, making short verbal responses or asking questions. This is helpful in keeping me alert during conversation. However, I get carried away sometimes especially when I have a pressing questions regarding what has been said or I have a comment that I need to make concerning the same. This hinders concentration on what is said afterwards because of continued thoughts about what I want to say or questions that I need to ask.

In listening skills, my strengths involve the ability to concentrate on what the speaker is saying. I am able to ignore any movements outside, interrupting phone calls or movement in the room. Also, I have the capability of empathizing with speakers and putting into consideration their sentiments for the benefit of the organization. However, my weakness in listening skills is the inability to read body language. This makes it hard for me to tell whether the speaker is lying. I was a victim of this before where an employee used lies in order to manipulate me to compromise with the company’s policies.

In addition, my preferred conflict handling style is one- on- one forum. This form of handling conflicts is effective because it has been used in several situations and worked excellently. It is easy to deal with individuals in conflict face to face in addressing the issues in question. This form of conflict handling style gives parties another chance to prove their efficiency. However, this style of handling conflicts is not applicable to all employees. Some relax, and their performance keeps deteriorating considerably with the thought that they will get away with it as before.

There is a possibility of improving my communication skills. In face to face communication, I have to learn how to listen to all the speaker has to say while noting down short comments to be made at the end concerning what has been said. This will prevent interruptions and foster full concentration on my part. In addition, improvement of my listening skills will require learning body language, how body language works in different emotions and how to pay attention to it and interpret the same while listening to the speaker. Also, in my preferred conflict handling style of one on one forum, I have to learn how to incorporate different styles depending on the individual.

Topical Discussion

  1. What are the processes for effective conflict resolution in the workplace? (Address informal conflict resolution practices and formal resolution practices such as negotiation and arbitration.)

Workplaces in the current world are ever changing and turbulent with inevitable problems, issues and disputes (McGrane, Wilson & Cammock, 2005). Increased teamwork, ever changing arrangements in organizations and constant change have an impact on employees. In such situation, managers are required to handle both their disputes and those of employees. According to Behrens (2007), informal conflicts are an example of such complaints that involve informal groups complaining of issues such as change of supervisors or safety at work. Effective conflict resolution in the workplace is dependent on internal structures of the organization, the culture of conflict resolution and specific disputes that need to be solved (Avgar, 2010). Conflict resolution bodies aim at identifying and addressing conflicts before they become serious.

These conflicts can be resolved through formal resolution practices such as negotiations and arbitration, determined by organizational structures in place, systems of industrial relations, work councils and management (Behrens, 2007). Organizational structures create conflict emergence and processing context, work place procedures for solving the conflict, definition of actors to the conflict and available resources to be used in conflict resolution. Negotiations in conflict resolution aim at managing conflicts at hand by providing appropriate mechanisms to maintain proper working relations in organizations as pointed out by Avgar (2010). In arbitration, on the other hand, the panels consist of both parties to the conflict, their representatives and a neutral individual to chair the proceedings (Behrens, 2007). These bodies consist of voluntary procedures agreed upon by both parties and in most circumstances they are established as permanent departments or when the need arises. Arbitration panels provide venting outlet through subjecting conflicts to processing as well as resolution. In turn, it fosters interpersonal communication, information sharing and trust.

However, these formal modes of dispute resolution are regularly criticized and considered ineffective, adversarial and eroded because they only focus on the law and procedure (McGrane, Wilson, & Cammock, 2005). Employees have become hesitant in using formal modes of dispute resolution for fear of negative repercussions and retaliation. Majority of them prefers using informal methods of dispute resolution such as one- on- one forum. In addition, (McGrane, Wilson, & Cammock (2005), propose that superiors with the capability of confronting problems are considered to be constructive in resolution of disputes.

2) What are the specific issues that managers and supervisors need to address when it comes to conflict within a tourist venue? How can these be resolved?

Shani (2010) provides that tourist visit places of interest with historical significance, cultural values, amusement opportunities or beauty. The places include national parks, zoos, museums, monuments, forests, sandy beaches and carnivals among others. Different companies such as hotels and restaurants, tours and travel companies and retail shops consisting of staff such as waiters, shop attendants, security personnel, chefs, cleaners, tour guide and drivers are found in these sites. These places are usually a bee- hive of activities because of different visitors coming in and leaving at different times (Soriano, 2002). In most circumstances, workers in the tourist venues work under pressure and conflicts among employees are likely to occur in such places. Therefore, there are several issues that need to be addressed by managers and supervisors in ensuring customer satisfaction, safety of customers and quality services (Soriano, 2002). This is because meeting the expectation of tourists is usually a guarantee that they will go back.

The issues to be addressed include but are not limited to failure to follow organizational rules and regulations, lack of team work during working hours, slow services and inefficiency at work and improper interpersonal communication among employees. These issues can be addressed through education of employees and job orientation regarding rules and regulations of the organization (Shani, 2010). Also, there is a need of occasionally engaging employees in team building activities to foster team work and interpersonal communication and on the job training for speed and efficiency.


Avgar, A C 2010, ‘Negotiated Capital: Conflict, its Resolution and Workplace Social Capital’, International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 21 no. 3, pp. 236- 259.

Behrens, M 2007, ‘Conflict, Arbitration, and Dispute Resolution in the German Workplace’, International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 18 no. 2, pp. 175- 192

McGrane, F, Wilson, J & Cammock, T 2005, ‘Leading Employees in One- to- one Dispute Resolution’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, vol. 26 no. 4, pp. 263- 279

Shani, A 2010, ‘The Role of Animal Based Attractions in Ecological Sustainability: Current Issues and Controversies’, Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 2 no. 3, pp. 281- 298.

Soriano, D R 2002, ‘Customers’ Expectations Factors in Restaurants: The Situation in Spain’, International Journal of Quality and Reliability, vol. 19 no. 8/9, pp. 1055- 1067

RJ 17091796 HAMED ALOLYANI, MG10A, Spring 2013