Reflective journal

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Reflective journal

Question A1

The environment mainly involves the physical atmosphere that influences communication. The mode of dressing influences the expectations for communication. It plays an essential role in determining whether or not the communication is formal or informal. The proximity between the people communicating also influences the expectation (Daft, 2012). When people are physically close to each other, it is more likely that the communication will be intimate. The physical distance among the people communicating is therefore an important factor that influences the process. The setting in the environment influences the expectations for communication. This involves the arrangement of equipment in room. The arrangement of tables and chairs in a room directly influences the expectations.

Question A2

The communicator has responsibility to the audience during the communication process. It is the responsibility of the communicator to be organized, clear, concise, punctual and ethical (Cameron & Green, 2012). This is mainly for the purposes of meeting the expectations of the audience. The responsibility of the communicator is also useful in ensuring that the audience fully comprehends the information. The audience also has a responsibility towards the speaker. It is the responsibility of the audience to listen keenly and provide the communicator with ample time to convey their message. The audience can also ask questions during the process in order to allow the communicator to provide more clarifications.

Question A3

Thoughts greatly influence the use of language in various ways. Ordinarily, the words that are used in different languages do not have any meaning. However, it is the thoughts that give the words the meaning. Thoughts play an important role in determining how various issues are perceived. Language can be considered as merely a system of words and symbols used to convey ideas (Thorson & Moore, 2013). It is the thoughts that influence how the message is interpreted. It is for this reason that people speaking the same language perceive different words differently which creates diversity in meaning. Thoughts greatly contribute to an establishment of a link that leads to an understanding of the language.

Question A4

The self concept is greatly affected by the language when delivering a message. When writing a message or saying something, it is not just the meaning associated with the words that is shared. The words usually communicate a lot about self concept. Unintended meaning that tells a lot about the individual is also conveyed in a message (Blake, et al, 2013). It is through the messages and words used that one is able to establish the relationship that exists with the sender. Any message has 5 different parts and this play an important role in highlighting the self concepts. The way individual use words during the communication process provide information about them.

Question A5

An article by the Age titled ‘It is time for Australia to set the refugees free’ attracts a lot of attention (The editor, 2015). The headline serves as a good attention statement as it creates an impression that refugees are being mistreated by the Australian government. The introduction makes a clear statement about the plight of the refugees and what contributes to their situation. The body message is detailed and it exposes the notorious and inhumane practices that the refugees are subjected to by the Australian government. This therefore creates a scenario indicating that the refugees are living like captives. The conclusion provides the audience with a sense of closure by summarizing the main points.

Question A6

Double speak involves the deliberate use of words to disguise or change meaning (University of Canberra, 2016). There is no justification whatsoever for using double speak. The use of double speaks ends up preventing the people from knowing the truth about a certain event or situation. It is important to note that the use of double speak can also be used to justify some of the wrongs committed. The use of the term collateral damage by USA to justify and cover up the deaths of innocent civilians during the invasion of Iraq is a good example. Double speak justifies what is not correct in an attempt to cover up the situation. The use of double speak is thus misleading to the audience and there is no justification for its use.

Question A7

In the article speaking glue, signposts have been used in several sentences (Sandman, 2013). The signposts have played an important role on terms of alerting the audience about changes in the topic. It has also been used for clearly highlighting the key points in the topic and therefore providing more information to the audience. The signposts can also be used in an article for the purposes of making a contrast in a sentence. An additional point which provides more clarification requires the use of a signpost. The use of signposts in the article has also provided emphasis.

Question A8

The article selected was a law book with various legal terms. Some of the terms in that has been used by the authour include adjudication, affidavit, affirmation, alimony, annulment, chattels among others (Nickolas, 2013). The authour has continuously used the words in different sentences which have played an essential role in creating an understanding. Definitions have also been provided although some are too long. The writer could however make the meaning much better to understand by making the definitions precise. A better control of the tone as well as understanding the audience are also important aspects that could have improved on the meaning of the words.

Question A9

Self concept influences how one perceives certain issue and what views they hold. This plays an important role in terms of creating a better understanding of the facts. Effective communication is influenced by the self concept (Blake, et al, 2013). This influences the ability of an individual to communicate with others in their messages. The self concepts provide the individuals with the ability to understand what other people think. It therefore guides the individuals on how they may communicate with others and the words that they may possibly use. The ability to communicate effectively with others is thus dependant and reliance on self concept.

Question A10

The field of psychology offers detailed information about self-fulfilling prophecy. According psychology, individuals usually form certain expectations of people or events (University of Canberra, 2016). As a result of this, someone’s behavior usually ends up matching the expectations of others. Better performance in most cases can be achieved in the presence of positive attitudes and encouragement. Psychology indicates that the expectations can be communicated through various cues which may be verbal or nonverbal. There is always a tendency to respond to the cues through behavior adjustment in order to meet the expectations of others. This therefore contributes positively towards self-fulfilling prophecy.

Question A11

Perceptions have the ability to limit or expand our views. This is usually brought about by the fact that people perceive things differently. People usually choose to select different aspects of a message based on what is familiar or interests them (University of Canberra, 2016). As a result of this, it is possible to perceive things differently. This can be achieved by improving on the listening and thinking skills. Paying a close attention to the message may also contribute to a change in perception. Overcoming the preconceived notions has the ability of creating a change in perception. This may however require a change in behavior as well as the habits.

Question A12

Listening without interrupting is beneficial as it ensures continuity in terms of obtaining the information. However, one of the major drawback that is related to this method is there could be lack of clarifications of some of the information. It may also be possible to forget some of the important points when there are no interruptions for the purposes of ensuring that questions are asked. Listening without being judgmental is beneficial in ensuring that a clear analysis of the information is made. However, this style has a drawback in terms of perception change. It may also be difficult to be critical when judgment is not made (Thorson & Moore, 2013).

Question A 13

The psychological noise has the potential of causing interruptions which has negative effects on the concentration. One of the strategies is to keep calm and ensure that concentration is maintained. Focusing on the core aspect that is relevant is also a strategy. The interruptions can greatly be minimized through maintaining a proper focus (Thorson & Moore, 2013). Keeping cool can also be useful in the process as it plays an essential role in ensuring that the concentration is maintained. A little bit of distraction which may involve doing something else is also important in dealing with such interruptions.

Question A14

A message can be sent to the lecturer but is its context has to be formal. The relationship between the lecturer and the student is professional. The normative expectations between the professor and the student involve official communication. As a result of this, the message must be comprised of official and appropriate words. The message therefore needs to be sent through the use of an email. The use of an email is considered official and professional (Thorson & Moore, 2013). In an email to the professor, at minimum, the official format should be utilized. The message should be precise and clear with the use of the official words.

Question A15

The intended audience usually influences the choice of words and use of language in a document (Daft, 2012). The choice of words when communicating with a fellow student is quite different from the communication with a lecturer. When communicating with a friend or fellow student, it is more likely that informal words will be used. An example is a scenario where inquiries are being made about the lesson. When communicating with a fellow student the message may read, ‘Hey, whatsup boy, do we have a business class today?’ However when inquiring from the lecturer, the message may read, ‘sir, please confirm to me if we have a business class today, Thank you’. The choice of words is very important and it mainly depends on the audience.

Question A16

The sales letter is to a Chinese audience providing information about a new product. This is with a perception that the Chinese people prefer clear and precise information. The letter is also of the view that the intended audience prefers simple language. The letter is also with the assumption that polite words are valued in the culture of the audience.

Dear Sir,

Following our recent meetings, I am glad to inform you that we have been able to successfully develop the new product.

The company is glad to inform you that the product will be delivered to you at a discounted rate and free samples provided. The new product will effectively address the challenges that you were facing. However, in case of any concern, please feel free to contact us. The company values all its customers and any concern will be accorded out full attention.

Thanks for your continued support throughout the years.

Yours Faithfully

Joe Frazer

Sales Manager

Question A17

Giant Corporation

13th Street, Melbourne

Tel 0897875397

Email: [email protected]

3rd September 2016

RE: New product of the company

Dear Mr. Jones:

We are glad to inform you that the company has manage to develop a new high quality skin care product.

As our main client, the company is pleased to inform you that the new product is far more efficient and cost effective. We would like to invite you to our launch and thereafter provide you with a free sample of the new product. You are encouraged to try the new product and give us a feedback. The company will accord you with all the support that you need in order to attend our launch.

Thanks in advance, feel free to contact us for more details or clarifications.


James Hardy

Marketing Manager

Question A18

The product that is to be produced is a mobile phone app. The three companies that are likely to purchase the product include, Samsung, Apple and Huwaei. The three companies are manufacturers of mobile phones. In order to make their products competitive, they require different features that improve on the quality of the mobile phones (Nolan, et al, 2014). The mobile app is likely to improve on the quality of the products based on how each of the company can utilize it. In the past, all the three companies are known to purchase similar products from other companies or innovators.

Question A19

A longer resume is not desired but it may be justified in some of the situations. It is justified when specific and relevant information that represents years of work and experience is extensive. However, the years of work and experience have to be related to the position applied for (University of Canberra, 2016). Such information is relevant as it may increase the chances of the individual to be invited for an interview. It also provides the employer with detail information about the potential of the candidate.

Question A20

The speaker has to understand the diversity of the audience. Different aspects such as culture and expected social behaviours of the diverse audience must be understood clearly (University of Canberra, 2016). It is also important for the speaker to provide general information. The use of specific information may lock out other members as they may not understand the message. Communicating to a diverse audience about climate change is a good example. The speaker should ensure that simple terms are used so as to enable everyone to fully understand the issues related to climate change. The speaker must not use jargons as most of the people may not be able to understand it.

Question A21

It is important to consider a rhetorical situation due to various reasons. The consideration is important in enabling the speaker to have a clear understanding of the situation (University of Canberra, 2016). This is useful in determining the best way to reach the listeners and ensure that the message is conveyed clearly. Considering the rhetorical situation makes it easy for the transition from the viewpoint of the speaker to that of the audience is made successfully. The expectations of the speaker can also be met through the consideration of the rhetorical situation.

Question A22

When presenting a topic about tattoos to the middle school children, the speech should mainly focus on the effects. The dangers of tattoos should clearly be highlighted to the school children. This is for the purposes of ensuring that they have all the information about tattoos and why they should not have tattoos at their age. However, when dealing with a group of college students, the focus should be on the care that they should take when tattooing their bodies. The school children will be discouraged to have tattoos at their young age while the college students will continue having tattoos but with caution.

Question A23

Organizing a presentation involves ethics. The presentation must be credible in order to develop trust from the audience. Credibility is an important aspect of ethics that ensures the information provided is true and beneficial to the audience (Daft, 2012). The use of references is important in enabling the audience to obtain more clarification about the information being presented. Proper use of references requires high standards of ethics. This is for the purposes of ensuring that the authours whose information were used are acknowledged. Information cannot be presented without reference as some details require specific sources.

Question A24

The speech is political and was made by the US Republican presidential nominee when accepting the nomination. The focus statement involved leading the party back to the white house and leading the country to safety, prosperity and peace. The introduction clearly introduced the audience to the topic and it also relates well with them. It highlighted what everyone was clearly surprised by his success which was largely unexpected. The body of the message is long and it mainly touches on political issues relevant to the audience. The conclusion clearly provides the audience with a sense of closure. The residual message in the speech is however controversial although it stays well with his supporters (CNN, 2016).

Question A25

The cloud computing is one of the technologies that has greatly transformed my world.

Organization principle


Cause and effect

Relationship between personal experience and cloud computing

  • When the personal use of cloud computing started.

  • Personal experience

  • Benefits of using cloud computing

Problem and solution

How it has solved personal problems

  • Challenges of using the ordinary software and hardware

  • Challenges related to the internet use

  • Cost reduction associated with cloud computing.

  • Ease of use related to cloud computing.


The editor., 2015. It is time for Australia to set the refugees free. Retrieved on 3rd September 2016 from, <>.

Sandman, M, P., 2013. Orienting your audience: Six Signposting tips. Retrieved on 3rd September 2016 from, <>.

CNN., 2016. Donald Trump’s Speech at the Republican Convention, as prepared for delivery. Retrieved on 3rd September 2016 from, <>.

Nickolas, J., 2013. Business Law, 3rd Edition. John Wiley & Sons Australia.

University of Canberra, 2016. Management Communication, First Edition. Faculty of Business, Government & Law, University of Canberra.

Daft, R., 2012. Organization theory and design. Cengage learning.

Cameron, E., & Green, M., 2012. Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Thorson, E. & Moore, J., 2013. Integrated communication: Synergy of persuasive voices. Psychology Press.

Blake, A., et al., 2013. Effective Communications strategies: Engaging in the Media, policymakers and the public. Child Welfare 92(2), 217-233.

Nolan, M., et al, 2014. Validity of the Apple iphone/iPod Touch as an accelerometer-based physical activity monitor: a proof-of-concept study. Journal of physical activity &health, 11(4).