Reflective journal

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This is a B2 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 8.1

Before issuing informative or persuasive presentation, presenters should first establish the purpose of their presentation. An informative presentation provides specific information to one’s target audience. When issuing an informative presentation, the speaker purposes to inform the audience of information they may not have. Even though the target audience may be having some general knowledge, informative presentation should provide extra, new and in depth information regarding ones topic. It is nonpartisan whereby it does not advocate one idea over the other. The speaker issuing Informative presentation should help his/her target audience to understand the subject better in a manner they will remember what they learned later (James, 2012). An example a sales report that aims in issuing sales report to the management as per given date.

On the other hand, when issuing a persuasive presentation, the speaker aims at convincing the audience to agree with their point of view. The presenter works toward making the audience agree fully or partially with the expressed view. For example, a sales person trying to persuade an audience to purchase his/her product or service. It’s partisan whereby the presenter will give the pros of what they are offering in comparison with others (James, 2012). This will entail giving evidence through graphs, statistical data, or even charts to the audience.


This is a B4 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 8.6

Presentation link

In this presentation, I find the introduction so effective. The presenter introduces the topic on globalization in such a way that it catches attention of his audience. He uses the introduction to reveal the message of the presentation which is globalization as it pertains international business. He further outlines the aims of the presentation into simple objectives of what is globalization, globalization strategies and interdependencies in globalization. Further, he introduces the topic by giving an example of what globalization is thus creating an overview to his audience about the topic. Later, he uses the introduction to lead into the body of his presentation (Richea, 2013).

In this presentation, I would improve on supporting materials. I would gather more information relating to globalization, use statistical data and charts that illustrate about globalization. I would suggest more reading on globalization from website, journals and even books. Apart from including other disciplines I would major more in my presentation topic so as to create more clarity. This would allow the audience to fully comprehend on the topic. Moreover, I would include a conclusion. This would summarize the topic as well as elaborate how globalization is shaping world business and the future it holds (Richea, 2013).


This is a B7 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 9.2

I think the principle of consensus still works. This is based on the fact that people are unsure of certain situations and hence look forward to other people for their opinion. In this note, people are persuaded to buy things owned by other people or are going to buy them. People are of the rule; safety in numbers. For instance, when purchasing product we don’t know about, there is a feeling of safety from knowing that there are other satisfied customer. Further, when deciding to hire a service provider or a contractor, we look on our neighbors for their opinion on the one they feel satisfied with (James, 2012).

I am often susceptible to consensus. I usually refer to reports of experience regarding certain products and services from my family members and friends. This is occurs when I have inadequate information regarding a product or service. I consider the fact that they have had experience in the product and hence they are satisfied with it. Moreover, it acts as a means of having their take in the decision am about to make. For example they may give of an idea or a better equivalent I was not aware of.


This is a B9 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 9.3

While choosing between discontinuance and deterrence call of action, I think discontinuance is more challenging. While deterrence aims at persuading the audience not to start a practice they have not started, discontinuance aims at the speaker persuading his/her audience to stop using a habit or idea which they are familiar with. Following a user trust in product or service, it’s challenging to convince them to start a new one. It is hard for them to change their tastes and preferences to a new one. Further, it will be challenging if the audience are used to their habit such as smoking. It is more challenging if the habit is part of their belief (James, 2012).

For example, it will be challenging to convince smoking person to stop smoking if they are addicted to it. Moreover, a customer may have a feeling of a given product in regard to its brand and company reputation. Hence, discontinuance will be challenging since they have already set standards regarding a particular product or service (James, 2012). Further, changing an individual belief over a new one is challenging. For example, one might believe in usage of a certain drug which he/she believe heals. Convincing them to stop using it will be challenging.


This is a B11 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 9.6

From the video, I will effectively use evidence to support my point of view. I will note other people findings and work conducted. This will help in strengthening my presentation. Moreover, I will quote their finding and indicate sources where I obtained the evidence. In general I will state my claim, give my evidence by relating to my claim and comment on my evidence to elaborate how it supports my case. Persuasion presentation can be ethical. It’s ethical because it is supported by evidence (James, 2012). Further, by allowing a “level playing ground” where everyone is free to communicate their ideas with the audience, persuasion is ethical. Moreover, it allows the audience to choose wide range of choices. This creates actual freedom and moral action possible. However, it might not be ethical because its true end is not aimed at public welfare but rather to the speaker’s interest. He/she may be trying to convince the audience to like his/her idea with the intention of gaining later.


This is a B13 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 9.8

Elevator pitch link:

This video is a collection of elevator pitch done by Saint Mary’s University students. The students have a time limit of 90 seconds to explain about their new product. This case study will be of the second student Nick White who pitches his business idea about automatic window opener. His elevator speech has several strengths. The introduction of his product is simple and clear to understand. He introduces his product in a catchy manner that makes the intended audience to want to listen to him. He maximizes on the use of movement by using his head and open torso which acts as a means of engagement (James, 2012). Moreover, he uses nonverbal explanation i.e. his hands as a means of explaining his concepts and keeping his target audience engaged (smuWinona, 2013).

However, Nick has several weaknesses. He does not give an example or a story of sample work done. This would help the intended audience to remember him. Further, the verbal content was memorized. This is evidenced by the various hitches in his speech. Memorizing elevator pitch is challenging since one can’t vary in a manner that fits ones audience (James, 2012). Moreover, Nick had the weakness of starting the conversation with his name. He should have started with something that catches the audience attention such as a question, comment or even a quote (smuWinona, 2013).


This is a B14 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 10.1

Nonverbal communication enhances our understanding of communication as that which is not verbal communication. It aid’s the speaker to present as well as gather clue from his/her audience. Further, they act as a means of reinforcing what is said in words. For instance, during a presentation, a nod by the audience vigorously is a confirmation that they are agreeing with one’s presentation. However, shrug of audience shoulders and sad faces are implications that things are not fine. It’s a means of providing feedback between the speaker and the audience. Additionally, eye contact can determine the mood of the audience. It enhances communication by determining the flow of presentation thereby determining the audience response (James, 2012).

Nonverbal communications enhance our understanding by acting as a complement for verbal message. For example, the use of hand gestures to elaborate on certain topic creates engagement with the audience. Further, the use of adapters enhances understanding of nonverbal communication by helping the speaker to adapt to the environment. This acts as a means of feeling comfortable and safe. Additionally, it enhances communication by allowing the speaker to determine if they are engaged with the audience. This allows them to determine points to clarify on (James, 2012).


This is a B16 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 10.2

Time is an important factor in communication in the information age. It calls for one to deliver their presentation in a clear manner that makes ones audience to understand the intended message. This ensures proper maximization of the time allocated. Additionally, time factor has been necessitated by the current technological advancements. Not only have technological advancements changed people expectations on information but also in the manner in which they responded to it. In this note, advanced communication technologies have called for proper utilization of time. Information age has introduced different forms of communication with different delivery time.

An example of how time is a relevant factor in communication is bidding. Bidders will work toward placing for a bid on time to outbid their competitors. Further, in stock markets, one will utilize their time to trade before the market closes. Moreover, time is of importance in flight management. Flight schedules are planned in manners that cause no flight delays or even congestions. This calls for timely communication between the flight attendants and pilots. During a presentation, one need to regulate their speech so a deliver their points it a balanced manner (James, 2012).


This is a B17 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 10.5

From the reading, there is the assumption of acceptance by the target audience. When presenting, there is assumption that the audience will accept ones topic and the mode of dressing. First impression makes the audience predict and judge the presenter. From the reading, there is the assumption in use of emotion to one’s audience. Communication that is presented in neutral manner may be noted as less credible and the audience may even question the speaker. This raises the assumption of advocating for something that one believes in (James, 2012).

Further the assumption of knowledge of one’s audience. Understanding the audience behavior and culture is vital for any presentation. This enables one to anticipate the audience and understand how to communicate effectively. There is the assumption that nonverbal communication will influence the audience. Use of nonverbal communication during presentation is aimed at inspiring audience towards changing their attitude. From the reading, there is assumption of uncertainty. One does not exactly know on the response, environment, age, ethnicity, gender or even cultural background of the target audience. Through observation, one will learn more about how the audience behaves (James, 2012).


This is a B20 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 12.3

In a crisis situation, there is likelihood of confusion and rumors arise. When people don’t know what to do in a crisis, rumors can run high as well as emotions. There is high likelihood of people’s feelings getting hurt and can also leads to loss of lives. To address probable challenges before crisis occurs, preparation plays a major role. This is due to fact that crisis if not addressed early can lead to damaged reputation and preparation to manage and clarify is vital in addressing the challenges. This involves being clear and concise, maintaining trust and respect for all, avoiding legal liability, maintaining relationship, reduce anxiety and attain the expected outcome. While delivering negative news it is important to start with a cushion statement. This should be followed with an explanation, the negative news and a redirecting statement (James, 2012).


This is a B21 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 13.4

Self disclosure is very important in a business setting. This is due to fact that when self disclosure works well, it can lead to positive effects which can lead to better interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal relationships are very important in work and business environment. It also helps in comparing ourselves with others and determines how we relate with them. It is important to know that in a business setting, self disclosure can lead to self validation in instances where those we disclose to are able to react in a positive way. It helps in knowing whether our values are same or different from those we are doing business with. Through this, it becomes possible to know whether to pursue a business relationship with another person or not. Despite this, it is important to know that self disclosure has both risk and rewards. Based on the five principles of self disclosure, it is evident that communication is a major part in any business setting. The principles points out that self disclosure moves in small steps, self disclosure moves from interpersonal to intimate formation, self discourse is reciprocal, self disclosure involves risk, and self disclosure involves trust. Through self disclosure, it becomes easy to enhance intimacy and trust that is required in a business. I believe that self disclosure is the hallmark of creating an intimate relationship. There is need for a skillful self disclosure that is capable of avoiding pitfalls in a business environment (James, 2012).


This is a B23 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 13.6

The approach that is used in managing conflict plays a major role in its resolution. I think the most effective ways in managing conflict are supportiveness, empathy and managing emotions. Through being supportive, it becomes possible to offers all parties an environment where they are listened and also listen to the message. In this case, it becomes possible to listen to the message instead of wholly focusing on the messenger. The discussion becomes highly supportive and professional which makes it possible to resolve dispute. Through empathy, it becomes possible to listen to both literal and implied meaning in the message. This approach makes it possible to understand feelings and emotions which are associated with the content. This helps in building relationships and coming up with ways in which conflict can be addressed in a constructive manner. Managing emotions is very important in conflict management. Through managing emotions, it becomes possible to negotiate and solve conflict in a rational manner (James, 2012).


This is a B24 paragraph response to the first Journal question under module 14.6

As a manager in charge of a dozen workers, I would rely primarily on Theory Z as my management style. This is due to fact that this theory combines both X and Y and takes the best aspects in them. This is a theory that is promotes participation of the workers and skills development. It also enhances the loyalty of the company and gives priority to job rotation. I believe that these aspects supported by Z theory are very important in management. It is a theory that will ensure that the workers have a sense of belonging. It will also ensure that workers do their job through trust and in a supportive environment. I believe that through the use of theory Z, workers will be fully motivated and collaborate for a common goal. Theory Z calls for consensual decision making. This is through communication, collaboration and having a consensus. This will ensure that every worker in the organization participates in a decision making hence reducing resistance. For example, making decisions on coming up with a new product will involve consulting all stakeholders. This will help in coming up with a product that is well accepted in the market and avoid failures. Decisions to promote and evaluate employees will be slow. This will help in promoting the right employees and ensuring that evaluation is not done in a rush. Through the model, it will be possible to have a holistic concern for all employees beyond workplace (James, 2012).


James S. O’. 2012.Management Communication, (1st Ed.). Faculty of Business, Government & Law: University of Canberra.

Richea, J. 2013. «Globalization — Introduction». YouTube. N.p., 2016. Web. 26 Sept. 2016 from,

smuWinona. 2013. “Sample «Elevator Pitches»” YouTube. N.p., 2016. Web. 26 Sept. 2016 from,