Reflection Essay

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Work, Science, and Technology


Work continues to be one of the most vital elements to both the individual and society. Despite the continued changes in the ways of life, work has remained to be a powerful integrating force for two primary reasons (Rifkin 1995). For instance, the society considers work as one of the moral things and that people mostly work as duty demands it. Additionally, people continue to find a job to be essential as it is necessary for individual survival. As such, employment can be considered necessary for existence.

Reason why People Continue Working

People continue to work or look for employment to remain moral and as a means of survival, which are the two principal reasons why work remains relevant in the contemporary world. The two reasons that explain why work exists today are mostly related to science also referred to as knowledge. The world was being revealed through the knowledge of an independent entity such as God in the pre-modern work society. However, in the current days, the society uses science in explaining various cause and effect that takes place, which is referred to as disenchantment. In the modern world, people are more rationalized and look at every aspect of life from modern science where everything must be scientifically proven (Rifkin 1995). The late modern work societies have a fragmented knowledge where science is highly used to either approve or disapprove various aspects of life.

Science and Technology

The reason why we still work cannot be complete without the understanding of science and values. Science can be used for various values just the same way as rationalization. For instance, science is not a value or attached to any norm but the choice of such values or standards attached to it that determine the direction it will take. Science has led to advancement in technology through continued innovation that has been witnessed over the years. For instance, science gave birth to dangerous innovations that have been the power behind industrialization. The history of innovation is never complete without mentioning technology such as printing, wheel, weapon and even internet, which is currently revolutionaries the world. In fact, one of the primary effects of technology or innovation is the change it brings in the social interactions and how people live in the society (Rifkin 1995). Just like science, technology remains free from any value or norm and that it becomes Janus-faced because of the norms or values attached to it. Technology can be attributed to various norms or values with an aim to achieve the satisfaction of needs, for automation, and majorly production and consumption.

In the pre-modern work societies, people were using manual, agrarian and very straightforward and crude tools to till their land, which was in small scale for family consumption. It has been very different in the modern work societies where heavy machinery has been greatly employed, which led to industrialization. Late modern work societies, on the other hand, have the most sophisticated technology, which includes global networking and robotic machines where work has been entirely automated. Even though technology has been of vital importance to the world, it has created room for independence by enabling autonomy, which has constraints people greatly. Technology is mostly used to control humans as it is used in implementing some of the prescribed values. Additionally, science and technology have been crucial in advancing knowledge concerning societal norms and values, which promotes system integration. Even though science and technology are norm free, people have strong belief in the two. In fact, science and technology can be said to be adequately representing individual’s belief system, which depends on continued progress.

Contemporary work societies experience a new network of communication that has emerged due to the advancement of science and technology. Technology has ensured that people are capable of accessing knowledge through the network due to the availability of internet databases. This brings the idea of the knowledge economy along with knowledge worker, which is what is known as employment (Rifkin 1995). However, there is an element of a paradox when talking about work. For instance, work is considered the center of society upon which everyone and everything depend on and takes holds. On hand, everyone is doing everything possible to do away with work as much as possible. While people look at work as a source of livelihood, technology and science work towards removing more and more labor using machines.


In conclusion, people still work for various reasons one of which is for intermediate value required for integration and dependency on innovation. Even though, people consider work as a morally and necessity, work reduction is equally considered a means of cost reduction. The paradox makes it difficult to find a holding center even though work itself is considered the center that holds the society through integration.

Reference List

Rifkin, J (1995), The end of work: the decline of the global labor force and the dawn of the post-market era, Putnam’s Sons: New York.