Reflection and Analysis Essay Example

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Reflection and Analysis

Reflection and Analysis of the Role of the Nurse when Health Care Intervention is Required for Adolescent Parents

Several children live with their adolescent parent, all alone. There are several challenges that adolescent parents face along with mitigating situations and protective aspects. Basically, adolescent parents as well as their children characterize populations who have an increased risk for medical, psychological, developmental in addition to social problems. In 2004, there were about 485 240 live births fifteen to nineteen year old females within the United Kingdom. There are countless concerns allied to adolescent pregnancy as well as the potential obstetric and perinatal complications. Preventing adolescent pregnancy and also indentifying elements that enhance results for parenting adolescents and their children are getting increased visibility as the number of younger adolescents is increasing (Smith, 2006).

There are several medical problems allied to adolescent pregnancy and they consist of poor maternal weight gain, anemia in addition to pregnancy-induced hypertension. These complications are highest for the youngest adolescents. Poverty, lack of education and also insufficient family support add to the lack of enough parental care, which could contribute to the majority of negative health results for the adolescent mothers and their children. Moreover, research shows that pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers are at increased risk for domestic violence. Adolescent mothers have a higher likelihood of being single parents and not accessing prenatal care or accessing the care just during their third trimester. Moreover, adolescent mothers have a lower likelihood of clearing their high school education (Sue, 2011).

In terms of development, since the adolescent mothers are immature, they could focus most of their time and energy into their relationships with their partner as compared to their relationships with their children. Again, they have limited knowledge regarding the growth of their children and suitable parenting practices, increased risk of neglecting their children or mistreating their children. Even though adolescent mothers and expectant adolescent mothers have been indicated to lowering their alcohol, smoking, marijuana and cocaine intake especially during the pregnancy, studies have shown that they intake of these substances increases steadily during the first six months postpartum. The trend of the adolescent mothers reducing substance use when pregnant can offer a window of opportunity within the immediate postpartum period for the health care provides to put emphasis on health choices by the mother (Sue, 2011).

Infants of adolescent mothers have a higher incidence of low birth weight, prematurity, developmental disabilities alongside inferior developmental results that the infants of older mothers. Deficits within cognitive and social development within the children of adolescent mothers can stay even up to adolescent stage. When compared to the children of older mothers of alike parity and socioeconomic level, adolescent mothers are less likely to vocalize, tough and smile at their babies, are less sensitive to and accepting of their babies’ behavior and to hold less practical developmental anticipations. Accordingly, adolescent mothers who are supported socially illustrate less anger and make use of less punitive methods of parenting as compared to adolescent mothers who receive less or do not get any social support (Nystrom, 2004).

Just like with older mothers, the attitudes of the adolescent mothers towards parenting have an impact on their parenting styles: mothers who have improper expectations on their children have a probability of using cruel and rebuffing discipline strategies. Such strategies are associated with the child irritation, low self-esteem as well as social withdrawal. In addition, mothers with strong feelings of insufficiency and malfunction within the parenting role tend to pull out both emotionally and physically from the baby. This withdrawal has been associated to angry and defiant baby behaviors and also uneasy mother-child relationships (Herrman, 2006).

Adolescent mother, especially the much younger adolescent mothers, might be lacking the maturity and expertise required for providing the proper infant care. Maternal substance usage before and after giving birth can also affect the development of the baby because of the physiologic or anatomic changes in the brain of the infant or the ability of the parent to take care of the infant properly. However, maternal age solely has not been indicated as being a risk factor for the sudden infant death syndrome, injuries, child abuse or infections; the aspects that seem to be risk factors in this include substance abuse or socioeconomic level. A recent research established that rare incidences of infant homicide, which tend to take place during the initial four months of life, are linked to having an adolescent parent, in particular for the adolescent mothers who gave birth when very young (Nystrom, 2004).

The nursing impact on the adolescent mothers includes; care giving experiences on the adolescent mothers. The nurses more so the pediatricians are supposed to offer continuity of care as well as a “medical home” for adolescent parents, including for their children. Particular attention should be paid to anticipatory guidance, early childhood education, in addition to training the adolescent mothers regarding the care-giving skills is supposed to include the adolescent mother as well as the father of the infant if possible. The health care providers handling the adolescent mothers should also ensure that care for these mothers is multidisciplinary and comprehensive utilizing community resources, like social services or Special Supplemental Nutrition Program. Moreover, early periodic screening, diagnosis and also infant ought to be utilized to incorporate medical and developmental service to the adolescent parents with low income and their children (Sue, 2011).

Accordingly, the nurse is supposed to facilitate adroitness of the changing services. The nurses also have a role of promoting breastfeeding the infants for all adolescent mothers. The health care providers may also promote the breastfeeding by the adolescent within the school situation. Furthermore, it is advisable to initiate contraceptive counseling during pregnancy and this should be encouraged after the pregnancy with the main focus on long standing methods along with protection use during sex. The adolescent mothers should also be encouraged to complete their education and also they should be encouraged to continue employing healthy lifestyles that could have been started during the pregnancy. Information regarding the effect of a mother using drugs or alcohol on the health of the baby and development ought to be availed at the mother and infant visits. Again, the nurses are supposed to evaluate the risk of domestic violence during and after pregnancy (Sue, 2011).

Furthermore, health care providers including the nurses have a role of stressing the value of the adolescent parent taking care for their children even though other adults are taking part in the care giving. The other caregivers require support and education and this allows optimal infant development and also helps the adolescent parents in achieving their own developmental landmarks (Constance, 2004). The nurses are supposed to adapt their counseling to the developmental height of the adolescent parents; this means that office-based as well as school based intervention that integrate exhaustive guidance on infant care and development, discipline and the stress connected with parenting should be established (Committee on Adolescence, 2007). Moreover, utilization of support groups within the office, clinic, home visits can be used in improving parenting skills. The health care providers are also supposed to maintain a sharp sense of awareness to focus on the development of the child and the adolescent parent as well. Additionally, the health care practitioners should make sure that quality community services are availed and that quality programs are utilized by adolescent parent, for example proficient home visits, receptive and efficient preterm and also infant classes and quality child care giving programs. Positive reinforcement for success should also be provided and this include encouraging and commending the successful adolescent parents, for example those who complete their education, those who abstain from alcohol and other drugs, those who breastfeed constantly and also the ones that constantly attend well-child visits (Mercer, 2004).

In conclusion, further research should be conducted on interventions that involve the fathers to the children born to adolescent mothers and on the impact of other infants’ care givers, for example grandmothers helping in child nurturing or as primary caregivers. Finally, the health care should conduct both short-term and long-term results on adolescent parenting programs (Lundy, 2009).

Unemployed parents

Recently, seasonally adjusted unemployment rate has risen to about 7.1 percent. Basically, unemployment limits or lowers the economic resources in the family. In particular, unemployed parents are able to appropriately provide enough food resources, good housing and clothing, quality education and also safe and fostering living conditions. In case the family lacks such capacities, their capacity to grow and develop is hampered. As a result, it has been ascertained that employment for the parents increase the tendency of the family to depend on a third-party for support. About 11% of the children have an unemployed parent and this percentage is greater that the percentage of working-aged adults who are not employed. Accordingly, the unbalanced effect of parent unemployment is more than the simple numerical comparison, though due to the negative impact of unemployment on the welfare of the children. This consists of the negative effects in areas of poverty, education, child safety in addition to homelessness (Fleming, 2005).

The role of the nurse in health care intervention is required when it comes to children of unemployed parents. Study has shown that children within families having unemployed parents have high incidence of psychosomatic symptoms, chronic diseases and low welfare, and that whereas the level of these associations is lowered after other potentially mediating aspects ate taken into consideration (for example, single parenthood and migrant status), the associations do not depart entirely.

Additionally, studies have shown that the negative effects can be mediated through the impact unemployment has on the mental health of the parents, with mental anguish allied to low social status, low self esteem as well as increased financial strain; all that have a negative effect on the emotional state of the parent (Fleming, 2005). Consequently, this can result into non-supportive marital interactions, compromised parenting and also internalization of the children, (for example withdrawal, stress, and anxiety) and externalization, (for example aggressive or felonious behavior, drug abuse) behavior. Again, children having unemployed parents can lead to negative psychological effects on the children, which are in turn allied to heavy smoking, alcohol and substance abuse and higher death rate from suicide and accidents. In this case, the nurses have a role of counseling such children and ensuring that there is appropriate social support that can decrease the psychological distress (Committee on Adolescence, 2007).

Unemployment also affects the parents. Often, prolonged unemployment for the parents can psychologically distress the parents. In most cases, stressed parents lose their emotional warmth towards their children and might turn out to be tremendously disengaged from their children. The increase in unpredictable behaviors for the parents considerably affects the ability of such children to grow and develop. Once more, when the parents are detached from their children, they lose the touch within their duty to take care of their children. Consequently, unsuccessful parenting has its particular impact on the emotional adjustment of the children. Moreover, the views or thoughts of the children regarding their economic future are normally associated with the present economic status of the parents. In most cases, the manner in which a child views his/her future has an effect in his/her education performance. As a result, the child’s attitude and behavior toward employment are also affected in the manner his/her parents react and behave towards such situations (Cavanaugh, 2004).

Research has established that there is a strong relationship between unemployment and mental hospital admissions, death and cardiovascular-renal diseases. Therefore, the nurses have a role in handling the affected parties and providing the appropriate nursing care to them. Besides, from a mental health and well-being, the nurses should assist such parents and their children to create a calming space as this helps them to cope well with the effects of unemployment during parenthood (Lundy, 2009).


In a nutshell, the effects of unemployment for the parents on families are enormously intense. Mostly, unemployment affects the financial and also emotional state of the family negatively. Therefore, the nurses have a role of strengthening familial relationships in such situations using the appropriate health care interventions (Marie, 2008).


Committee on Adolescence. (2007). Care of Adolescent Parents and Their Children. Pediatrics. Vol. 107/2.

Constance, D. (2004). Family Matters: How Mothers of Adolescent Parents Experience Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting. Public Health Nursing. Vol. 21/4.

Fleming, D. (2005). Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Problem-Solving Intervention Clin Nurs Res. Vol. 14/1.

Herrman, J. (2006).The voices of teen mothers: the experience of repeat pregnancy. MCN Am J Mertern Child Nurs. Vol. 31/4.

Lundy, S. (2009). Community health nursing: caring for the public’s health. Newcastle: Sage.

Cavanaugh, E. (2004). Beating the unemployment blues. American Journal of Nursing. Vol. 194/4.

Marie, L. (2008). A Conceptual Review of Family Resilience Factors. Journal of Family Nursing. Vol. 14/1.

Mercer, M. (2004). Will mothers discuss parenting stress and depressive symptoms with their child’s pediatrician? Pediatrics. Vol. 113/3.

Nystrom, O. (2004). Parenthood experiences during the child’s first year: literature review. J Adv Nurs. Vol. 46/3.

Smith, M. (2006). Foundations of maternal-newborn nursing. Michigan: Elsevier Saunders.

Sue, K. (2011). Public health nursing care for adolescent mothers: impact on infant health and selected maternal outcomes at 1 year post birth. Journal of Adolescent Health.Vol. 1/3.