Reading Report #1 Essay Example

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Government-Business Relations 1004PPP – Reading Report

Student Name:_______________________________________________________

Tutorial (e.g. Monday 10.00am-11.30am): ___________________________________

Reading full reference

Xu Yi-Chong and Patrick Keller Why International Organizations Matter. 2013 , In Harlvosn, D.,’ Political Economy: Historical Overview, In Government and Business in Volatile Times, Chapter 2

Main point(s) made by the author(s)

The authors mainly undertake to highlight the roles played by International Organizations (IOs) in globalization. The author’s identify that States are dependent on IOs in order to protect intellectual property rights through multilateral and bilateral agreements.

The author state that IOs have advanced globalization since they provide security, stability and peace amongst states. It is stated that prior to their establishment, globalization and international cooperation was hampered due to the unavailability of dispute resolution mechanisms, and IOs came to reduce the problems of conflicts and instability.

The roles played by IOs in financial crisis is crucial since organizations such as IMF(Internationally Monetary Fund), the World Bank are important in ensuring that there is continued cooperation amongst states. It is highlighted that even though a state is sovereign, it can willingly submit to an IO in case of a dispute and regard the decision arrived at as binding. Increasing cooperation has led to creation of regional organization such as the African Development Bank ensuring that globalization and trade continues to thrive.

Finally non-party states to IOs are usually left out and do not enjoy the benefits of belonging to an IOs. The advantages are that a States interest is negotiated and catered for it they are parties to the IOs.

Evidence and examples used

An example used by the authors is the negotiation of the WTO is Australia in relation to trade barriers. Despite Australia reducing the trade barriers and tariffs, there were people who lost jobs while others saw this development as a means to expand their business to other areas. It is therefore material to state that IOs fail to take relevant information regarding the impact of their confidential and opaque negations to the public as opposed to interested parties needs.

Strong and convincing parts of the text

The author states that IOs are unique since they are a creation of the States. It is argued that States are in a privileged position in organization since they are founded by them, they constitute their membership, monopolise voting rights, financially support the organization. States are also bound by the decisions of IOs despite being sovereign states and that through IOs a state can achieve a collective benefits that states cannot attain if they do it on their own.

Weak and unconvincing parts of the text

Despite the advantages raised by the authors, they criticise IOs for being shifty in the way they make decisions. This is because the decision making bodies are opaque and non-democratic in their bargaining and compromises.