Read the unit book and find answer to those questions Essay Example
COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT 4
PUBLIC SPEAKING; COMMUNICATION AND PASSING INFORMATION
B2: difference between Persuasive and Informative presentations
Presentations are of several types. They can be informative or persuasive, or even both. Informative presentation seeks to make known ideas or concepts. They exhibit statistics, extensive evidence or re-affirm situations. On the other hand, persuasive presentations aim at persuading/convincing the audience towards acceptance of ideas or concepts. Boundless (2017) are of the opinion that where the two types of performance are related, they are distinct in their rights. The goal of the presenter provides the greatest difference. Whereas informative presentation aims at asserting accepted information, a compelling presentation has the goal to make the audience understand and possibly accept ideas as the right/correct ones. An example of informative presentation is a classroom lecture while a persuasive presentation can best be exemplified by a public seller who says their wares are the best quality, justifying the reasons to buy them.
B4: analysis of online business speech
Informative presentations are a common spectacle in many business organisations and industries today. Such a presentation is aimed at presenting particular communication to a select group of people in the business field. More often than not, they have a desired impact on the audience. An example of an informative business speech that is the verbal/visual replica of an industrial report is one published online at «speech guru.» On social networking websites and how they work, the speech delivers a picture of an entrepreneur who aims at making public the social networking websites for business gains. http://old.speech-guru.com/sample_informative_speech_social.php . The informative speech performs effectively while zeroing in on the main aims. The above speech is effective in that it extrapolates the numerous social networks available and gives the most applicable of information to all. However, some parts of the speech need improvement. Though it recognises the need to have good information about the social websites, it fails in its mandate to provide the same. It exemplifies an excellent entrepreneurial report though.
B7: The principle of Social Proof
While there is no one effective way to have a successful persuasive presentation, there are principles that have been tested and are known to work. Among these six principles is the principle of consensus that drives entire populations to think in one direction. The principle makes people reliant on others’ views, for example, towards a particular product. Testimonials from others often work to persuade people about certain thoughts or products. McLean (2003) argues that statistics, testimonials and poll/survey reports are the best tools used for social proof/ consensus persuasion. The behaviour demonstrates that human beings are primarily affected by the tendencies of «many others.» In uncertain and untested situations, humanity tends to move towards decisions made by others of the same level, in similar circumstances. So, it is true that people are persuaded by the tendencies of others. I also fall prey to the principle of consensus. If my friends have tested it and the report is to my liking, then why not?
B9: Discontinuance and Deterrence
Call to action is an element of every formal report or presentation. The communicator has a role to challenge or stimulate the audience towards making specific decisions. There are several goals of action, among them deterrence and discontinuance. Discontinuance aims at changing the direction a people have already taken and to adopt suggested ways. On the other hand, deterrence aims at drawing attention to something but encouraging the audience not to start engaging in them. An example of deterrence as a goal is encouraging those who have not started eating junk food not to start because of the implications they may have on their health. On the other hand, exemplifying discontinuance may entail encouraging drug addicts to refrain from illegal drugs due to the dangers they expose themselves to. Scott and Murray (2012) argue that whereas the two goals are important, discontinuance is critical as it involves the attempt to stop already started harm. It may, however, be the most challenging as it is difficult to get people out of habits they have acquired and addictions they have developed.
B11: Persuasion; Ethical or Unethical?
Ethics are important aspects of any sphere, and they need to be observed in any environment. Business has its ethics; the medical field has its set of ethics and communication should honour and encompass such ethics. Johansen (1995) articulates that in a world where persuasion is seen as a set of propaganda and overrated exaggeration, the propagation of false of misleading information is such a criminal activity and should be shunned at all costs. The author further recognises the fact that unethical communication has not only led to financial scandals but also in scandals that maim the ability of a business to present itself as an honest player in the field. In the same study, the author reiterates that in democratic societies, it is the rights of the people to receive communication in its purest form as misrepresentation leads to mistrust and possible legal procedures. In a setting that respects the business image as opposed to the instant profits they might make by an unethical presentation, ethical communication is possible and is a priority.
B13: Elevator Pitch; Strengths and Weaknesses
Elevator speeches are the oral versions of Twitter; small, word limits imposed but they are straight to the point. It is usually compelling and points the audience to the point of concern without much of hustle. The elevator pitch outlines an idea for business or project within a short period, usually not more than a minute. http://www.prosperitycoaching.biz/a_6-steps-to-an-awesome-elevator-speech.html . Posts examples of several elevator pitches drawn from various services. The pitch has several components of the type of speech. It entails what the speaker does, what the clients are and also the catch-phrase or hook that attracts the audience. As is the case with most other kinds of speeches, the elevator pitch is designed to persuade either clients or possible clientele, draw them to what the speaker does and possibly make them subscribe to that. The pitch also outlines the benefits that the audience is likely to accrue from the association between them and the business. The elevator speech set out above has some weaknesses as well as strengths. To the audience, it creates an impression of success in business.
It is persuasive in that an imagined association with the financial advisor leads to almost instant results. The notion that the business success is created as effortlessly as the pitch maker suggests is a caption enough to draw the audience to subscribing to the ideals. On the flip side, however, the elevator pitch fails to bring on captivating phrases to create a strong imagination. This would include phrases such as «…imagine your business succeeding with…» the other likely weakness is that in as much as it is captivating, it may not follow the time limit because of its length. It is, however, more strong than it is weak. It could rate highly among elevator pitches.
B14: Nonverbal Delivery
Communication is the exchange of information between two or more parties/people. The elements of communication include encoding, decoding and giving feedback. Whereas oral communication involves more than giving gestures, nonverbal delivery involves the exchange of gestures and signs that are meant to be decoded by the recipient. Because it can be intentional or unintentional, this form of communication may be confusing and limits the understanding of what communication should be and what exactly it entails. Baran (2014) reiterates that nonverbal communication has all the aspects, except speech. The author further states that we may use body language without being aware of it.as such, nonverbal communication may pass a message that was neither intended nor encoded. Communication should be in its context, and the audience may try to decode unintentional gestures, leading to confusion. As such, nonverbal cues limit ones’ understanding of what communication is and what it is not. The view that nonverbal communication is that is not verbal is also limiting because Baran (2014) argues that there are several classes of nonverbal delivery including verbal-vocal, nonverbal-nonvocal and nonverbal-vocal. If that be the case, then to some extent the nonverbal art may incorporate some verbal forms which are limiting to the understanding.
B16: Relevance of time in communication
Time is perceived as money in many communities today. A good communicator/speaker strives to ensure they are within the given time-limits for their speech. A speaker who starts and stops speaking on time, having adequately passed all the prepared material, is likely to be a darling to the audience. On the other hand, a speaker who concentrates on several points realises time has elapsed and skims through some other main points is not a good speaker. Thomas et. Al (2010) state that the role of time in communication can not be over-emphasized. Chronemics, the study of the role of time in communication, should be understood by the speaker if they are to be effective in passing the message. The audience has perceptions about time and how the speaker uses the factor determines what they capture in the whole session. Otherwise, they will be listening but not hearing. A relevant example would be a situation where students have two lectures in succession, without a break. Having planned for the next session, the students will tend to get bored if the first tutor extends their talk time. Another example is a situation where a day-long business conference has several speakers with various modes of delivery. If the speakers use more than the time each session has been allocated, that means the conference may run up to late. The audience may start leaving before it is over. As such, it is universally agreed that time plays a great role in the communication era.
B17: Assumptions of Nonverbal Communication
The speaker, in delivering information non-verbally, assumes that the audience is well-versed in the gestures and expressions that they are going to make. Because nonverbal communication is perceived as complicated and confusing, there are several assumptions made by either the communicator or the audience. The assumptions are that the public has a competing approach and other deterrent needs, the communicators are rewarding towards the potential of the audience, the deliverers develop expectations about the non-verbal behaviours of the public and that the nonverbal behaviours have associated evaluation from either negative or positive. In communicating nonverbally, the communicators assume that the nonverbal cues they use are recognised across the entire audience. When these assumptions are made, it is very likely that communication will not be effective as the assumptions may not be wholly correct. Some of the underlying assumptions are that the gestures are too basic and should be understood by anyone in the audience. The expressions from the audience, while they may be out of the context of the communication, may be taken to mean that they are either satisfied, frustrated, disgusted or anything else. The assumption here is that all the cues used in the communication process are intended for that. This may lead to misrepresentation.
B20: Responding to a crisis
Crisis situations are ones in which individuals or groups of people do not respond to a stimulus as efficiently as they do in other situations. Responses in critical situations are very individualised. An action in crisis may be extreme, either as a result of the event at hand or the experiences from the past. People tend to react differently to a crisis, and the situation exacerbates when an individual does not know what to do in such a situation. Because crises are never prepared for, it is justifiable for a person to be anxious and panic. It is normal for people to panic and tries to seek answers/solutions for the tragedies at hand. Of course, there might be no viable explanations to a crisis immediately it happens. As such, people react by becoming frantic. They may also become desperate to get answers, especially when the tragedy/crisis involves life and valuable property. According to http://www.ndnu.edu/campus-life/files/2013/05/dealing-with-a-crisis.pdf, people are usually irrational in a crisis. The text further argues that different people can control different situations differently, depending on who those people are, their emotions and what is affected by the crisis. Because rises will always be there, it is important to come up with ways to handle them before they come. Crises can be addressed before they happen and possible solutions put in place. The first step is planning and putting in place measures to follow when a crisis occurs. Designated locations for safety should be permanently in place. Communication in times of a crisis is another aspect that should be addressed before a crisis. Letting people know how to address a crisis is one of the primary things. A care team should also be in place to ensure that they take care of both the emotional and physical welfare of affected individuals.
B21: Self- disclosure in business
Self-disclosure is a communication process in which an individual reveals information about themselves to other people. It may be about feelings or thoughts, but generally about other aspects of an individual life. In a business setting, self-disclosure may be for evaluation purposes or can be descriptive. According to Ignatius and Marja (2007), self-disclosure may reveal thoughts, fears, dreams, likes and dislikes. One of the principles of self-disclosure is that involves trust and risks. It occurs in a stepwise manner, and there should be time to know the other person before you can divulge information about yourself. It is also reciprocal, and when you disclose your feelings and attitudes to the other person, they should also do the same. In a business setting, a self disclosure is important as it allows the employer to know the employees better. In that way, the employer will be able to cater for the needs of the employees, and they would work harmoniously. An example is during an interview. The prospective employee may need to disclose crucial information about themselves so as to build trust and a healthy relationship between them and the employer. In that way, the company will know whether to employ this person in comparison with their ideal candidate. Another example is at the department level. Because self-disclosure entails creating relationships, it is important that employees may know their colleagues on a superficial level to more intimate conversations so as to work harmoniously with people the know.
B23: Conflict in the workplace
Work environments are composed of people from different walks of life, with different capacities to handle pressure and other things in the course of work. As such, work environments are laced with conflicts, albeit sometimes. Conflicts can not be avoided, but they can be managed. Because they are universal, we learn to live with them. Several strategies to manage conflict in the work environment are available. From the strategies described in the section above, avoidance is one of the most effective ones. This is because refusal to pursue a topic, or the application of wisdom to avoid conflicting discussions is always a way to end the conflict. When one of the parties does not talk, then that means that the other one will not have room to pursue that conflict. Confrontation will only exacerbate an already volatile situation. Empathy is another strategy that could be useful in the control/management of conflict. When one of the parties cares to know the cause of such a reaction from their partners, they are empathising with their feelings and emotions. When we empathise with the feelings of our partners in the work environment, we create positive relationships that will aid us in managing conflicts when they occur in future. Supportiveness may also act as an effective strategy to manage conflict. Paying attention to the message and not personality of the partner is positive as it allow self-evaluation
B24: management style
In as much as the three theories are stipulated, it would be subjective to make an assumption about my kind of employees. Whereas management style X prefers to view employees as lazy people whose only motivation is the money they get from the labour. On the other hand, style Y gives the employees a benefit of doubt and allows them all the freedom. As a manager, I would prefer to use management style Z. my reasoning is, if I choose to go with theory X, the employees will forever see themselves as objects of work and will only do so because they have to. Otherwise, they will not meet their needs
Employing Theory Y and allowing my employees all the freedom to do what they will would be an abuse of power. Cooperation, in this sense, is the best thing. If I rotate my employees in different departments, it gives them exposure to various challenging situations and gives them room for growth. In this manner, I as the manager will be inculcating positive values in my employees. They would have loyalty to the business and motivation would be evident. Relationships are the best ways in which to trust people, and because style Z allows employee motivation, it is the best for me as a manager who seeks business growth. There are many decisions to be made in business. I would use the conceptual decision-making model to involve all of my employees, brainstorm through suggestions and come up with conclusions. A decision on buying land for the business would entail the involvement of several minds. This will help in creating loyalty, and the employees will be committed and active.
Baran, F., (2014). Nonverbal Communication in Humans. Accessed online through http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10911359.2013.831288?journalCode=whum20 on 23 Apr 2017
Boundless. «Persuasive vs. Informative Speaking.» Boundless Communications Boundless, 17 Mar. 2017. Retrieved 22 Apr. 2017 from https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/persuasive-speaking-14/introduction-to-persuasive-speaking-72/persuasive-vs-informative-speaking-284-8000/
Bruneau, Thomas J. (1980). «Chronemics and the Verbal-Nonverbal Interface». In Key, Mary Ritchie. The Relationship of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication. Mouton Press. pp. 101–119. Retrieved 23 Apr 2017
http://old.speech-guru.com/sample_informative_speech_social.php Retrieved 22 Apr. 2017
http://www.ndnu.edu/campus-life/files/2013/05/dealing-with-a-crisis.pdf Retrieved 24 Apr 2017 at 5:11 am
http://www.prosperitycoaching.biz/a_6-steps-to-an-awesome-elevator-speech.html Retrieved 23 Apr 2017 at 6;30 am
Ignatius, E.,& Marja, K. (2007). «Factors contributing to verbal self-disclosure«. Nordic Psychology. doi:10.1027/1901-2222.214.171.1242
Johansen, R., (1995). Perspectives on Ethics in persuasion. Northern Illinois University.
McLean, S. (2003). The basics of speech communication. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Scott, M., Murray, M., (2012). Communications For Business Success (Canadian Edition); The functions of persuasive speaking. Creative Commons pages 540-545.
More Important Things