Question and answer Essay Example

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Reading: Howell, S 1988, ‘From child to human: Chewong concepts of self’, in Acquiring culture: cross-cultural studies in child development, eds G. Jahoda & I. Lewis, Croom Helm, London, pp.147-168.

Question 1: What does Howell say is the importance of naming for the Chewong?

Naming for the Chewong is vital based on their beliefs and values, whereby the community members believe that children are well identified through their names. Besides, children also behave according to the name given, thus the importance of naming them after birth to work towards shaping how they develop or grow.

Question 2: How does the concept of ruwai affect the care of babies?

Ruwai concept assists the particular community members to offer efficient care to their babies based on the fact that the ruwai is of no importance and tends to be thrown away for the child to be identified as a factual person. Therefore efficient care is offered since human beings are vital.

Question 3: What does Howell mean when she says that for the Chewong, “a child is not a human being”? Include an explanation of what “being human” means for the Chewong.

A child does not function or behave similarly with the grown up people, but tend to be highly dependent on their support. The Chewong understand being human to being able to operate through the person’s five elements, such as smell, feel, touch, taste, and hear, which are not fully functional in a child.

Question 4: What evidence does Howell use? (e.g did she do fieldwork? If so, when, where, with whom? How did she collect her data?)

Howell did a thorough fieldwork since she visited the community and collected her data as per the things she was able to observe. She interacted with the community members during the time when children are mostly born and after staying with them for some time, she acquired the specific information.

Question 5: In no more than 2 sentences, state what interested you most about this text, or a question it raises for you.

This question was very interesting to me, especially through the information of how children are identified differently from other individuals in the Chewong community. Moreover, it helped me to acquire knowledge regarding how different community conduct their rituals, for instance, the one’s for naming children and taking care of them.

Reading: Hayashi, A, Karasawa, M & Tobin, J 2009 ‘The Japanese preschool’s pedagogy of feeling: cultural strategies for supporting young children’s emotional development’, Ethos, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 32-49

.Question 1: The authors describe a ‘triad of emotional exchange’ in the socialization of Japanese children. Explain in your own words how this shapes social interactions.

A ‘triad of emotional exchange’ enables the Japanese children to interact socially based on personal emotions and as per the feelings that they develop when undergoing their preschool courses. It assists in the promotion of how young children connect with each other socially and based on how they interact with their mothers.

Question 2: What do the messages children receive about emotions reveal about the ‘ideal person’ in Japan?

The particular messages make it certain that an ideal person has to be emotional based on the beliefs and cultural practices that are practiced in Japan, especially in relation to the education received by children. Nonetheless, the emotional socialization results to proper development of a factual person, as per the Japanese culture.

Question 3: Explain in your own words why the teacher Morita deliberately avoided overtly intervening in a dispute between some girls in her class.

The teacher Morita understood that the girls were behaving so because of their emotional socialization and self-attitudes. In addition, this teacher was aware of how girls tend to behave at the particular stage, therefore wanting first to pay attention to the specific cause of their dispute rather than making them develop negative emotions towards her.

Question 4: What evidence do Hayashi et al use? (e.g did they do fieldwork? If so, when, where, with whom? How did they collect their data?)

Hayashi et al. applied the information collected from the conduct of field work. It is clear that there was the conduct of research survey in various Japanese preschools. Moreover, the investigation was done through an interview to some educators and the observation of the preschool children’s behaviour.

Question 5: In no more than 2 sentences, state what interested you most about this text, or a question it raises for you.

This text raised a question to me regarding how the teacher Morita failed to interrupt when she identified that the girls were fighting with each other. It was not possible to understand how the girls would be left to continue with their dispute and yet the teacher understood that they were guided by their emotions, which influenced their socialization. Reading: Valentin, K & Meinert, L 2009, ‘The adult North and the young South: reflections on the civilizing mission of children’s rights’, Anthropology Today, vol. 25, no.3, pp. 23-28.

Question 1: What is the ideal childhood the authors claim is being promoted by the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Non-government Organisations (NGOs) working to support it?

The ideal childhood that is promoted is the “good childhood” which is based on the proper development of a child and his or her improvement. It is the childhood that enables children to know their rights and how they can be civilized even as they continue living in the colonial world. The childhood is supported by the child-focused NGOs.

Question 2: This article gives examples NGOs whose programs have unintended negative consequences for the people they are working with. Give one example of something an organisation has done and the negative consequences.

An organisation, such as ‘Save the Children Denmark” offer the appropriate learning experience only to the good children and denying the right to those children who might be identified as not being good. The organisation does not consider the best interest on the child in relation to education.

Question 3: The authors argue that there is a contradiction between, on the one hand, the CRC’s emphasis on children’s views being heard and their right to have a say in decisions that affect them and, on the other hand, other aspects of the CRC and local cultural values. Give an example from the article of this contradiction.

In the article, there is the contradiction based on how children are supposed to acquire proper childhood and parenthood and the aspect of how the normal childhood can be emphasized. Nonetheless, the article tends to identify the contradiction between child protection and child labour in the community.

Question 4: What evidence do Valentin and Meinert use? (e.g did they do fieldwork? If so, when, where, with whom? How did they collect their data?)

Valentin and Meinert apply the data collected from the previous publications concerning the specific topic of the study. The authors have also gone through the articles written in relation to the operations of the specific NGOs on the issue of child rights. Therefore, they rely on literature to compose the article.

Question 5: In no more than 2 sentences, state what interested you most about this text, or a question it raises for you.

In this article, there is the question about how the NGOs tend to engage in negative activities accidently although their focus is to assist and support children. It is not clear to me how a well-planned program can end up leading to the realization of negative outcomes to children.

Reading: Chenhall, R, B. Davison, J. Fitz, T. Pearse and K. Senior 2013 ‘Engaging youth in sexual health research: refining a “youth friendly” method in the Northern Territory, Australia.’ Visual Anthropology Review, vol. 29, no. 2, pp.123-132

Question 1: Why did the researchers choose to use the body mapping method for their project?

This method was efficient in the successful conduct of the project, which was linked to the images of the bodies of the community. Besides, the method made it efficient to examine the present and future contexts of the research. The usage of body-mapping method was matching with the research theme.

Question 2: Why do the authors see the location used for data collection as problematic?

The location was problematic because it did not have an adequate space for the conduct of efficient body-mapping. This is based on the fact that participants were many and every individual had personal story to share. In addition, the tools used in the conduct of body-mapping were not fitting well as per the study interests.

Question 3: Describe one of the other obstacles the researchers encountered.

The researchers faced the issue associated with the negative consequences experienced from the participants who failed to offer their permission to respond and this led to their unwilling participation in the project. Therefore, getting the required number of participants was hard since the majority were declining their participation.

Question 4: What evidence do Chenhall et al use? (e.g did they do fieldwork? If so, when, where, with whom? How did they collect their data?)

Chenhall et al. have used some data that is collected through the conduct of a fieldwork, especially through the findings from the particular study. There is also the analysis of the past literature in relation to the same topic of study, which enables the authors to have an efficient comparison of the arguments of the researchers and the recommendation for further research.

Question 5: In no more than 2 sentences, state what interested you most about this text, or a question it raises for you.

What is most interesting in this article is the issue of youth feeling shame and fear linked to stigma after participating in the particular study. This means that every young people are not always willing to expose their bodies. Nonetheless, the study was effectively done what-so-ever leading to the program’s success. Reading: Rydstrom, H 2002 ‘Sexed bodies, gendered bodies: children and the body in Vietnam’, Women’s Studies International Forum, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 359-372

.Question1: Summarise what Rydstrom claims are the ideals held about girls’ behaviour in the village of Thinh Tri in Vietnam.

The particular ideals include; how girls are influenced by their bodies. There is also the idea of the manner through which patrilineage and morality influences the girls’ social position in the village of Thinh Tri in Vietnam given that their bodies are recognized just for reproduction purposes.

Question 2: Why is confrontation more of a problem for Thinh Tri females than for males?

Confrontation of females with danger or during the war leads to their increased fear. This is because the female bodies are identified to be very weak as compared to those of the males. Nonetheless, males have bodies that enable them to respond quickly to any attack based on their well-established bodies.

Question 3: Give an example of how Rydstrom shows gendered ideology being reinforced in situations in which children have confrontations with adults.

In the situation of the daughters are not identified as capable of reproducing the lineage of their fathers because the community thinks that only the sons can manage to make their father’s lineage continue. Besides, the daughters’ bodies are being celebrated in a different way from those of the boys.

Question 4: What evidence does Rydstrom use? (e.g did she do fieldwork? If so, when, where, with whom? How did she collect her data?)

Rydstrom uses the data from the literature written concerning the village of Thinh Tri in Vietnam, specifically from the community members who keep records regarding their beliefs and values as linked to the child bodies. Nonetheless, the author identifies the historical information written concerning the particular community in comparison with things going on currently.

Question 5
In this text, the most interesting thing is the aspect of this community believing that boys are the only one with the ability to continue with the father’s lineage and not girls. This means that based on the gender, boys are identified to be more important than girls in the community.
: In no more than 2 sentences, state what interested you most about this text, or a question it raises for you.

Reading: Butcher, M 2008, ‘FOB boys, VCs and Habibs: Using language to navigate difference and belonging in culturally diverse Sydney’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 371-87 Question 1: Summarise what Butcher argues about migrant youth using new forms of language amongst themselves: what does this entail and why do they do it?


Butcher states that migrant youth needs to be identified with the locals and to feel belonging in the same area, therefore learning the languages used by the community in the foreign land. Besides, the youth migrants like not feeling different from others and this makes them to socially interact with other youths to learn from them.

Question 2: Give an example from the article of the attitude of migrant youth towards the language of their parents.

The migrant youth develop negative attitude towards their parents’ usage of their home language after migrating to foreign countries. The article identify that migrant youths tend to dislike how their parents expose their home languages even once they even communicate to the locals using the mother tongue irrespective of cultural diversity.

Question 3 1. ‘shifting vocabularies and meanings’ (p.372)
: There is some difficult language used in this article. In your own words state what each of the following means [0.5 marks each]:

The concept means using different vocabularies and difficult ones that would enable the user to have some changed meaning of their message. It means adopting a different language once a person migrates.

2. ‘identity bifurcation’ (p.385)

It is the changes that tend to influence the person’s identity, whereby an individual bears two identities one being for the foreign land and the other one for home land.

Question 4: What evidence does Butcher use? (e.g did she do fieldwork? If so, when, where, with whom? How did she collect her data?)

Butcher examines the information written concerning the usage of language by the migrant youth in the second-generation for the direction of one’s belonging and identity when living within different communities. There is also the conduct of field work based on the Australian culture using migrant youths as the participants.

Question 5: In no more than 2 sentences, state what interested you most about this text, or a question it raises for you.

This text interested me through the information about how youth migrants are negative about the language that is used by their parents even when at the foreign nation. It is clear that youth migrants are not always comfortable using their mother tongue once they migrate from their home nations to the foreign countries.Reading: Olwig, K 2012, ‘The care chain, children’s mobility and the Caribbean migration tradition’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol 38, no. 6, pp.933-952.

Question 1: What is the Caribbean ‘care chain’ that Olwig discusses in her paper?

The Caribbean ‘care chain’ discussed by Olwig is that of offering efficient care to the young adults who migrate from their home countries, especially when looking for employment. The chain is associated with linkage between the transnational, regional, and local networks of the relational dealings for the young adults.

Question 2: In the story of the Smith family, what were 3 key factors shaping children’s experiences when they were separated from their parents?

The 3 key factors include; their age, whereby when a child is very young, one has negative experiences after being separated from the parent. Secondly, the level of emotional attachment between the child and the parent also influences their experience. The other factor is the connection between the child and the other person to be left in charge of offering care.

Question 3: List the different forms of children’s mobility discussed in this article.

The forms of children’s mobility include; movement to different countries for instance, when migrating with their parents or guardian. There is also the mobility in the form of shifting their dependence from one person to another. Lastly, there is the mobility that is associated with the movement of child care from home to school.

Question 4: What evidence does Olwig use? (e.g did she do fieldwork? If so, when, where, with whom? How did she collect her data?)

Olwig applies the data from the conduct of fieldwork by studying the living of the people living in Leeward Island of Nevis. The researcher did the study by interviewing the participants who were required to give their life stories, especially those with children and living with young adults. The interview required the respondents to have engaged in physical mobility from their home countries to foreign nations.

Question 5: In no more than 2 sentences, state what interested you most about this text, or a question it raises for you.

It was interesting in this text to understand how children’s mobility takes place, as well as how the rate of children mobility is measured to be low or high. Besides, the relationship between children’s mobility and young adult’s migration is efficiently identified in the text, therefore, making it possible for the reader to gain more understanding.Reading: Amigó, M 2010, ‘Small bodies, large contribution: children’s work in the tobacco plantations of Lombok, Indonesia’, The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology vol 11, no. 1, pp. 34-51.

Question 1: Following Amigó’s analysis, if child labour was prohibited in rural Lombok, Indonesia, what would be the consequences for the children, families and communities? 

Prohibiting child labour in the rural Lambok, Indonesia would make the children, families, and the communities experience some economic-based tension based on the fact that it would not be possible for them to continue earning. Moreover, the prohibition might also lead to the reduction of workforce in the tobacco sector, therefore lowering the production and lead to low economic growth towards the communities.

Question 2: What is Amigó’s critique of the concept of ‘household strategies’?

Amig’o identifies that ‘household strategies as applied by the rural Lambok are not efficient given that they are associated with the practice of exploiting children into child labour, which is relied upon by their households. Amig’o also critiques how households encourage the child’s paid work at the tobacco industry

Question 3: Give an example of how the children described in this article exert their agency.

The children in this article use their agency to ensure that there are not overworked and to be certain that the employers do not subject their lives into any danger. Additionally, the agency is used to ensure that the children are listened to by the plantations’ owners, especially when they tend to raise some issues.

Question 4: What evidence does Amigó use? (e.g did she do fieldwork? If so, when, where, with whom? How did she collect her data?)

The data applied in this article is based on the fieldwork that was done in Indonesia, specifically in the tobacco growing plantations. There was the conduct of an interview to the affected children and their parents concerning how child labour in the region is useful in their households. There is also the observation of the operations in the local community.

Question 5: In no more than 2 sentences, state what interested you most about this text, or a question it raises for you.

The text leads to the question whether there is an organisation or parties caring about the welfare of children in the eastern region of the island of Lombok in eastern Indonesia who can fight for children’s rights. It is not clear how children are openly exploited in the tobacco plantations without any step being taken.

Reading: Davies, M 2008, ‘A childish culture? Shared understandings, agency and intervention: an anthropological study of street children in northwest Kenya’, Childhood, vol. 15, no. 3, pp.309-330.

Question 1: What is the relationship between Kenyan street children’s sub-culture and wider society, according to Davies?

The Kenyan street children are able to for some reliable social groups that are characterized by leadership. Besides, Davies identifies that the Kenyan street children engage in economic associations and also share their diverse subcultural understanding with each other based on the fact that they have the freedom to make personal choices unlike the wider society.

Question 2: Summarise how life on the streets can be empowering to the Kenyan children described in this article.

Kenyan children can be empowered by life on the streets given that children in the streets have the opportunity to make economic based choices. Once they form groups, there are individuals and organisations that come across to offer them support through improving their talents and assisting in the improvement of their life quality. There are also chances of being offered jobs.

Question 3: List the kinds of interactions between street children that Davies describes.

Davies explain about social interactions between the street children, which is associated with their formation of the social groups, whereby they share their sub-cultural, bodily, language, dress, activities, dress, as well as understanding. There is also some interaction when the street children are engaging in some economic activities.

Question 4: What evidence does Davies use? (e.g did he do fieldwork? If so, when, where, with whom? How did he collect his data?)

Davies uses the information collected after having conducted some fieldwork and interacting closely with the street children. Besides, he managed to observe the nature of the social life lived by the street children and how they are empowered differently. The data was collected through an interview practice.

Question 5: In no more than 2 sentences, state what interested you most about this text, or a question it raises for you.

The text had some interesting information concerning how the street children are empowered despite them having been identifies as outcasts in the society because of their tendency of avoiding living with other people. This shows how much the society is concerned about the life of the street children.

Reading: Montgomery, H 2007, ‘Working with child prostitutes in Thailand: problems of practice and interpretation’, Childhood vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 415-430. Question 1: What was one of the ethical dilemmas Montgomery encountered in her research with child prostitutes?

One of the ethical dilemmas in this research include; working with the particular children who are vulnerable and trying to identify the difference between researcher’s personal interpretations, as well as the interpretations of the children themselves.

Question 2: What were two of the obstacles Montgomery encountered in her research?

Montgomery faced hindrances such as; inability to convince children about their human rights given that they thought that they had the right to their bodies. The other obstacle isthe problem associated with the effort to express the duty of protecting the children rights among the child prostitutes.

Question 3: Montgomery writes reflexively in her article: i.e. she considers how she influenced her research (and vice versa). Give an example of this.

She clearly understood that child prostitution was a form of child exploitation, therefore writing the article based on the much understanding she had. Furthermore, the author influenced the article through her understanding about the issue of children’s rights.

Question 4: What evidence does Montgomery use? (e.g did she do fieldwork? If so, when, where, with whom? How did she collect her data?)

There was the conduct of some fieldwork for the author to acquire the appropriate information to include in her article. This is where Montgomery engaged in a survey practice and conducted an interview through some children prostitutes in order to get the required data.

Question 5: In no more than 2 sentences, state what interested you most about this text, or a question it raises for you.

This text raises the question associated with how it would be possible to work with the children prostitutes and yet the researcher understood how vulnerable they are and the issues surrounding their practice. This implies that the society needs to take an effective action towards ending children prostitution and improving the lives of the victims.

Reading: Betz, E. 2014, ‘Polynesian youth hip hop: intersubjectivity and Australia’s multicultural audience’, Ethnomusicology Forum vol. 23, no. 2, pp.247-265.

Question 1: What are the typical features of the home lives of Polynesian youth in Sydney’s western suburbs, as described by Betz?

The home lives of Polynesian youth are characterized by their p0ractice of hip hop art and the wide engagement in hip hop cultural practices. They have the tendency of wanting to keep the music life real through their creative interaction, whereby they share their knowledge among them.

Question 2: What does Betz mean by ‘intersubjectivity’ in this article?

Betz uses ‘intersubjectivity’ to refer to the ability of the Polynesian youth in Sydney’s western suburbs to share their knowledge among them based on their conscious mind that is linked to the conduct of hip hop music.

Question 3: How does hip hop reflect processes of globalisation?

Hip hop is one of the factors of globalization because it allows the artists to communicate with each other from the overseas. Nonetheless, the art allows the individuals to move from one nation to another as they share their creativity and when engaging in competition activities. Besides, the art leads to the practice of multiculturalism performance.

Question 4: What evidence does Betz use? (e.g did she do fieldwork? If so, when, where, with whom? How did she collect her data?)

Betz has engaged in case studies given that he managed to associate with the Polynesian youth in Sydney’s western suburbs, especially those practicing hip hop and collect clear data from them. The data is acquired through the practice of analyzing the particular case studies to identify how the youths shared their experience and knowledge with the researcher.

Question 5: In no more than 2 sentences, state what interested you most about this text, or a question it raises for you.

It was interesting about how the Polynesian youth in Sydney’s western suburbs put their effort towards keeping the practice of hip hop real in their lives through their daily multiculturalism performance. The aspect of hip hop being a culture is also interesting about the Australian community.