PUBLIC HEALTH PROMOTION PLAN 1

  • Category:
    Nursing
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    3
  • Words:
    1819

Public Health Promotion Project Plan: Stroke Awareness and Prevention

Public Health Promotion Project Plan: Stroke Awareness and Prevention

Needs Assessment

Stroke ranks among the top ten leading killers globally with approximately 10 million new cases being reported annually. The majority of the individuals who suffer from stroke often die, with survivors developing different impairments or disabilities. In Australia, health statistics suggest that for every six individuals, one person will suffer from a stroke during the course of their lives (Stroke Foundation: Australia, 2016). These statistics also explained the number of stroke survivors in Australia to be 130000, with approximately 420000 individuals being directly or indirectly affected by stroke. Other than affecting families and Australian citizens, stroke has also impacted Australia’s overall health budget, with reports explaining the financial cost of managing stroke to be approximate $5 billion annually. With the increasing life expectancies, the health budget is likely to face increased burden, as expenditure on stroke is likely to rise, mainly due to the fact that stroke mainly affects the elderly population.

Other than the issue of finances, studies have also suggested an increased risk of stroke incidence among ethnic minorities including Australia’s indigenous people (Gardois, Booth, Goyder, & Ryan, 2014). Environmental, hereditary and health system factors are major contributors to the high stroke incidence rate among indigenous people. Lack of awareness also accounts for high stroke occurrence rates among Australia’s native people (Thrift, Cadilhac, & Eades, 2011). These high stroke incident rates among Australia’s native population indicate a need for an educational program aimed at improving stroke awareness among the Aboriginals and Torres-Strait Islander people. The educational program will mainly target teenagers in Greystanes High School with special emphasis on the Aboriginal and Torres strait Islander students within the school. The health promotion project mainly targets students, as they are likely to continue with the awareness within their homes and communities. The health awareness project will mainly focus on education on stroke prevention as well as how to identify stroke symptoms; therefore, improve overall awareness of stroke related issues among Australia’s indigenous people.

Program Planning

The project mainly hopes to achieve two major goals; therefore, improve awareness and reduce the number of deaths resulting from stroke among the indigenous people in Greystanes area. The first project goal aims at establishing and promoting environments aimed at supporting the prevention of stroke among the indigenous population in Greystanes, with emphasis on resource access, and services. Within the first goal, the health promotion plan will include a timeline to help achieve the two main objectives under the first goal. The first objective aims at increasing the number of community partners; therefore, promoting equal access to information for all Greystanes residents. The health promotion plan intends to achieve this objective within a period of four weeks, with targeted partners being other high schools and local businesses. The health plan also intends to increase the amount of stroke-related educational material in local high schools within a period of four weeks. Meeting this objective will require the development of partnerships and collaborations between the health promotion team and the students, who will assist in the development of learning material.

The second goal of the health promotion aims at providing knowledge to students; therefore, increase the number of people who can identify and stroke symptoms as well as how to respond in case of a stroke. Meeting the second goal will require the plan to accomplish one major objective within a period of two months. The objective aims at increasing the number of teenagers aware of the early stroke signs and symptoms and the importance of emergency response in case they experience or are in the vicinity of an individual experiencing a stroke. This objective aims at ensuring a 10% increase in the number of teenagers who are knowledgeable about the stroke warning signs.

Implementation

Increasing awareness on issues related to stroke signs and symptoms, as well as stroke prevention will employ both group and community-based strategy. Group level strategies include the use of education, neighborhood walking programs, and peers support groups involving students. According to Boden-Albala et al. (2010), the use of group-level strategies allows health promotion within small population groups. The use of peer support groups is an effective strategy when dealing with people who are within the same age group. The health promotion campaign targets indigenous high school students aged between 14-17 years. This chosen age group will allow for the development of two main peer support groups, with the younger students being in a different group of the seniors. The peer support groups will mainly work to ensure all group members are knowledgeable about the various stroke topics. The use of the peer groups will help the students engage in debate on the various stroke warning signs and prevention strategies; therefore, gain a deeper understanding of how to identify stroke symptoms early (Covington, et al., 2010). The use of peer groups also allows the students to learn and teach one another; therefore, enhance the spread of information.

Another strategy that focusses on groups is one that involves neighborhood walking programs. Neighborhood walking programs aim at increasing the amount of physical activity performed by community members. Walking programs would also allow for increased awareness as through the walks, the different student groups will also participate in educating the community at large (Lohrmann, 2010). The neighborhood walking programs would help in meeting the objective of raising awareness on how to prevent stroke; therefore, meeting the first goal. The use of education as a health promotion strategy focusing on a group will act as the most important strategy in promoting stroke awareness among the indigenous population in Greystanes area. The education approach will involve four lecture sessions conducted within a four-week period. The four lectures will focus on educating the students on stroke prevention strategies, as well as how one can identify early signs of stroke. Other than the lectures, the health promotion campaign will also employ videos, which will mainly focus on the warning signs of stroke, as well as how one should respond in case of a stroke. The use of videos will help provide an audio-visual explanation to stroke-related topics; therefore, reinforce the students understanding of the various stroke-related issues. The use of videos may also allow development of discourse as students attempt to discuss what they learned from the videos (Bensley & Brookins-Fisher, 2009). Such discourse is likely to promote further learning; thus, promote increased awareness on stroke-related topics among the native Australian community living around Greystanes high school. Employing the education strategy will also involve students taking the home reading material to help improve understanding of the various symptoms of stroke. Taking the educational material home is also meant to encourage students to share learned information with relatives; therefore, increases overall community awareness on stroke related issues.

Evaluation

The health promotion plan will undergo four main evaluations, which will occur throughout the project. Evaluation allows one to assess if the project met both its short-term and long-term goals. The evaluation also allows a chance for reflection; therefore, determining what worked and what did not work (Brug, Tak, & Velde, 2011). During the initial stages of the health promotion project, a formative evaluation will be conducted. The use of a formative evaluation allows one to establish the direction and scope of the project (Allender, Rector, & Warner, 2013). The formative evaluation would involve the use of surveys, as the main data sources for the evaluation process. This evaluation is crucial in determining the project goals and objectives.

The health promotion program is likely to run for a period of four weeks. During the course of the project, there is a need to evaluate the programs reception among the targeted community. Trends among high school students are constantly changing, which may result in the project receiving a negative reception from the students. Evaluating the program’s reception will help to inform how the project should continue. Such an evaluation would involve the use of observation, and focus groups. In the case of an initial negative reception, the evaluation will help provide framework changes required to improve program reception.

Immediately after the four-week period, there is a need to assess the short-term effects of the health promotion program. The impact assessment is usually conducted immediately after completing a health promotion project, which allows evaluation of whether the project met its various short term objectives (Department of Health & Human Services, 2012). The impact evaluation will involve the use of focus groups and checklists as ways of assessing if the students understood the various material taught during the program. Focus groups will allow students to discuss what they learned; therefore, allow the project coordinator assess the changes in student knowledge. Checklists would allow students to list areas where they thought to need increased attention during future health promotion programs. The last assessment for the project would take place approximately six months after completion of the projects. The outcome evaluation aims at measuring the long-term impacts of health promotion program. The outcome evaluation would involve an analysis of previous data in comparison with data from the past six months. For the project, the evaluation would involve an analysis of stroke-related data among the native Australian community in Greystanes area within a period of six months. Although it may not be the main cause, a decrease in the number of stroke-related deaths and disability may illustrate the success of the project.

References

Allender, J., Rector, C., & Warner, K. (2013). Community & Public Health Nursing: Promoting the Public’s Health. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Bensley, R. J., & Brookins-Fisher, J. (2009). Community health education methods: A practical guide. Massachussets: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Boden-Albala, B., Stillman, J., Perez, T., Evensen, L., Moats, H., Wright, C., . . . Paik, M. (2010). A stroke preparedness RCT in a multi-ethnic cohort: design and methods. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 235-241.

Brug, J., Tak, N. I., & Velde, S. J. (2011). Evaluation of nationwide health promotion campaigns in the Netherlands: an exploration of practices, wishes and opportunities. Oxford Journals, 05-09.

Covington, C., King, J., Fennell, I., Jones, C., Hutchinson, C., & Evans, A. (2010). Developing a community-based stroke prevention intervention course in minority communities: The DC Angels Project. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 139-142.

Department of Health & Human Services. (2012). Measuring health promotion impacts: A guide to impact evaluation for health promotion. 1-42.

Gardois, P., Booth, A., Goyder, E., & Ryan, T. (2014). Health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the literature. BMC Public Health.

Lohrmann, D. K. (2010). A Complementary Ecological Model of the Coordinated School Health Program. Joutrnal of School Health, 1-9.

Stroke Foundation: Australia. (2016). Facts and figures about stroke. Retrieved from Stroke Foundation: https://strokefoundation.com.au/about-stroke/facts-and-figures-about-stroke

Thrift, A. G., Cadilhac, D. A., & Eades, S. (2011). Excess risk of stroke in Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. . Stroke, 1501-1502.