PSYCHOLOGY Essay Example

  • Category:
    Sociology
  • Document type:
    Assignment
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    2
  • Words:
    1214

6Psychology

Introduction

Personality study has a broad history in psychology. The key theories comprise trait perspective, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behaviorist as well as social learning perception. The biopsychosocial model of human behavior is an integration of biological psychological and social aspects that explain human behavior. In biological aspect, human behavior can be explicated by genetics and heredity whereby genetics is mainly determined by DNA which is perceived as being responsible for a person’s behavior effect (Gauntlett, 2005). The biological aspect also explains that human behavior is allied to some actions that cannot be controlled and are common to everybody. This is explained through the nervous system. For example, when someone is extremely hungry, the brain tells someone to look for food.

The psychological explanation of biopsychosocial is that human behavior is understandable through cognitive development. Here, an individual can deduce meaning from incidences through the relationships which he/she develops within his/her mind regarding a certain item (Santrock, 2008).

As the mind develops and is adjusted to some notions, it starts reacting towards these occurrences in a specific manner and this comes with diverse reactions. An individual is greatly affected by his/her surroundings and there is a high probability of such an individual adapting to a given behavior subconsciously. For instance, temperance varies from one individual to another and this is largely shaped by the mind’s role on the particular person. Another element of biopsychosocial in explaining the human behavior is the social element. In this case, the human behavior is largely affected by the family as well as the culture. Basically, culture has a strong effect on human behavior since it establishes the reaction of individuals to other people and how people express their feelings towards each other. The biopsychosocial model offers several explanations regarding human behavior. Specifically, the psychological and social elements have a great effect on the influence of media violence on the human behavior (Santrock, 2008).

Media is everywhere. Almost all homes within Australia have television or a radio. The messages depicted through these mediums are clearly identifiable; “buy and listen to me and think what I think”. With all these messages, certainly they’re effects that come along with media. Violence is a significant subject. Often, people don’t realize how grave violent messages within media can affect their everyday lives. With time, violence within the media has become acceptable and hence people are not noticing this violence anymore and nearly “normal” within the society. But the effects of media violence can be perilous (Lombardo, 2003).

There is a relationship between media violence and aggression. For instance, several research studies illustrate that children and young individuals who prefer watching and reading violent media also score higher on aggression indexes when compared to the ones who watch and read less violent media. According to Gauntlett, 2005, a child has a high likelihood of being aggressive when he/she watches violent television programs for a long time, believes that the violent shows indicate life in reality and identifies strongly with aggressive characters within the violent shows. Basically, media violence desensitizes individuals to real violence. Several studies carried out within 1970’s indicated that individuals who are constantly exposed to media violence are less disturbed when they see real world violence and less sympathetic for the victims. Most people are likely to tolerate aggressive behavior within the real world in case they first watch television/video games and films containing violent content (Engler, 2006).

Furthermore, individuals watching a lot of media violence tend to believe that the world is more precarious than in actuality. Studies show that heavy television viewers tend to view world in a manner consistent with the television images. As viewers’ views of the world come to conform to the portrayals they watch on television, they become more unreceptive, more anxious and even more fearful. However, heavy viewers are not more likely to in reality feel more fearful. Individuals watch larger amounts of violent media are more likely to:

  • Overrate their risk of being victimized by crime

  • Believe their neighborhoods are not safe

  • Believe «fear of crime is a very solemn personal problem»

  • Presuppose the rate of crime is escalating, even when it is not (Gauntlett, 2005).

The relationship between violence, video game and aggression is extremely complex and has an addictive effect. This implies that individuals who already are high in particular aspects, mostly hostility, are at higher risk of becoming more aggressive because of the influence within violent video games. The individuals having low hostility levels have almost no effect in aggression levels after being influenced by violent video games. Due to the high levels of biological and physical changes taking place during puberty, exposure to violent games affects these processes. These processes are there during adolescence but still they are affected by current environments. Generally, aggression increases during adolescence. The aggression along with exposure to violent media highlights and increases aggressive cognitions, effects as well as arousal. The interaction has a negative effect on the internal state and this results to increased aggression (Krull, et.al. 1999).

The effects of media violence can be long-term. For example, televisions can affect the mind of children negatively where it can be a negative influence that upsets moral balance and hence makes the children to be liable to aggressive behavior because it wraps the children’s perception regarding the real world. Most children and youths as well are more attracted to the horrific violent behaviors displayed within the media. Because media violence is much more violent and sadistic than what people experience normally, real-life aggression appears plain when compared. The media violence appears more exciting and thrilling than the everyday violence. In most cases, people who are exposed to media violence do not realize that things are not handled the same way as in media and hence the world seems tame when compared. As a result, such people create violence that their mind wants (Fowles, 1999).

Media violence bombards us all the time. There are numerous networks shoot which bring countless numbing horror to many viewers. Unlike the real violence, aped media violence is repeated constantly in an accelerating outline. While there media violence is progressively increasing, the people are threatened by loss of self-esteem, fear of crime as well as fear of the neighbors. A permanent notion is created on an individual’s mind after come along media violence more so in young children (Gauntlett, 2005).

In conclusion, there is entirely no doubt that higher levels of watching violence are interrelated with increased approval of aggressive attitudes as well as increased aggressive behavior. Individuals’ exposure to violence within the mass media, more so children and youths, can have detrimental lifelong outcomes (Bradberry, 2007).

References

Bradberry, T. (2007). The Personality Code. New York: Putnam.

Engler, B. (2006). Personality Theories. Sydney: Mifflin.

Fowles, J. (1999). The Case for Television Violence, Thousand Oaks: Sage

Gauntlett, D. (2005). Moving Experiences — Second Edition: Media Effects and Beyond, London: John Libbey.

Krull, D.S., et.al. (1999). The fundamental attribution error: Correspondence bias in individualist and collectivist cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1208–1219.

Lombardo, G. (2003). «The concept of personality in 19th-century French and 20th-century American psychology». History of Psychology
6 (2): 123–142.

Santrock, J.W. (2008).The Self, Identity, and Personality. In Mike Ryan. A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development. New York: McGraw-Hill.