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Project Strategic Estimate

Project Strategic Estimate

The world has recorded a rise drug abuse recently. The most abused substances globally are amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opioids. 52 million people in the world are dependent on these four drug groups. The 2013 statistics indicate that the country that has the most drug problems in the whole world is Australia (The Guardian, 2013). It has the highest consumption of ecstasy, takes the fourth position in the use of methamphetamines, and the fourth in abuse of cocaine (Carswell, 2014).

There is a higher predominance on the use of amphetamines in Western Australia in comparison with other Australia Drug markets. An amphetamine is the third majorly used drug in the Western Australia as compared to ecstasy and cannabis. According to the research that was done by Edith Cowan University that assessed the interrelationship between amphetamine and offences done by some captives that has used thus drug. It was found that the users of amphetamine are the one’s likely to obligate property, carry out some robbery activities as compared to users of other related harmful substances. On the other hand, most of its users are more likely to cause violent crimes, additionally, if the use of amphetamine will not be minimized in Kimberly it will continue to cause some social and health cost to the society involved.

The concern of the increase in the use of drugs is due to the adverse effects they have on various sectors. For instance, they lead to the growth of the dependency rate, increase the poverty rates, and boost the tendency to engage in violent crimes. Although Australia has the highest drug problem globally, different districts record differing drug use rates. In Kimberly, various factors have led to the use of amphetamine and alcohol, which give rise to many community harms.

State of Amphetamine-Type Stimulants and Alcohol-Related Crime and Disorder in Kimberley

The residents of Kimberley have been misusing alcohol for the longest time. The rates of alcohol abuse have continued to rise over the years thereby increasing the effects of alcohol in indigenous people. According to Mere (2015), the increase in alcohol use in Kimberley has led to the rise in crime rates in Kimberley. Currently, the cases of domestic violence in the region have increased with most of them being associated with drunkenness. Approximately 80% of all the domestic violence cases are alcohol related (Parke, 2016). There are also more health alcohol related issues in the district. The number of aboriginals hospitalised in the region has therefore risen over the years. The diseases associated with alcohol consumption are some cancers, stroke, and liver cirrhosis (Drug and Alcohol Office, 2015).

The use of Amphetamine is more available in the market as from the year1990s. But in the year 2004-2007 there has been decreased on the use of drugs from 3.2% to 2.3 %. Furthermore, the increase in quality of high grade and amount of amphetamine was detected by the customs and the Australia Federal police. The Amphetamine has been linked with some mental, social effect, unlawful behaviors and some violence behavior in the Kimberly district among the communities. As per the data that was collected by National drug strategy household survey, 2010, it shows that almost seven percent of Australians population that are aged 14 years and above had at one time used the amphetamines.

Mostly it has been used by people ranging between ages 20 to 29. Furthermore, majority of dependent users are more likely to have some mental problems that may have an effect in one’s disability or may cause disability. This is because majority of its users started due to the drug being offered to the accomplice. Also individuals who are in their earlier stage in using the drug they mostly appear opportunistic and highly avertible through relevant harmful use and social education.

Amphetamines for several years has been linked by a wide variety of criminal issues and the public safety of a country for instance unlawful drug markets, violence related with its use, committed crimes, underground existence of drug laboratories ,unlawful ingress antecedent drug access by people. Also there has been possibility for obtaining the drug through fraud so that it can be used in manufacturing some chemicals

In the year 2007 to 2008 a research was conducted and found out that majority of detainees with amphetamine positive test result of urine were prisoned due to stealing and some related crimes in comparison with prisoners who had negative urine test of amphetamine. But after measures were put in place to control on the use of drug in terms of gender and age, majority of individuals with unlawful drug issues problems and illegal drug dealers were found to be having positive amphetamine urine test.

Amphetamine-type stimulants, on the other hand, have only been recently introduced in Kimberley (Collins, 2014). However, the residents of the area already feel the effect of the drug in the area. The rates of the usage of amphetamine in the district have been steadily increasing over the years. According to Mullany (2011), the rate of amphetamine abuse in Western Australia is the highest in the world. Although the drug was previously known as the drug meant for the rich, the youths in Kimberley found a way around this and have replaced their reliance on other drugs with their reliance on amphetamine (The Sydney Morning Herald, 2011). The use of amphetamine-type substances causes community harms such as violence, mental disorders, and health-related issues. These problems have caused people in the district to panic and created an outcry against its use in Kimberley.

Prediction in the next 12 months

In the recent years there has been connection between the use of amphetamine and crimes of violence. Majority of violent convicted cases are as a result of consumption of the unlawful drugs and some percentages are as a result of taking alcohol. Around 47% of amphetamine users who have committed crime related to violence were found to be prone.

The use of alcohol and amphetamine in Kimberley is expected to rise in the next 12 months. This is because the government is using the wrong strategies to tone down their use. They fail to understand the aspects that they should address to discourage the use of alcohol and amphetamine. For example, Premier Lucas informed the public that one of the ways she would use to reduce alcohol consumption and its related harms is limiting the supply of alcohol in the district (Mere, 2015). Based on results of similar strategies used in the area, this strategy will also fail, which will lead to the region recording higher rates of alcohol consumption. Parke (2016) points out that restriction of the supply of drugs or alcohol in Kimberley would not reduce the consumption rates but instead would be a way of favouring the black market. Consequently, the alcohol and amphetamine-related crime and disorder will increase with the increase in alcohol consumption and amphetamine abuse.

Nature of Community Harms

The indigenous groups in Kimberley are amongst the most endangered communities in Australia. They have to deal with a broad range of community problems. Some of these problems are high suicide rates, high crime rates, health issues, violence, and high death rates. Although other communities experience these problems as well, the Aboriginal communities experience it most. This is a threat to their existence especially because they are only a small portion of the Australian population. To identify ways to curb these problems successfully, it is important first to determine the factors that cause them. Failure to identify these causes correctly would lead to the enactment of wrong solutions, which would fail. A wide range of factors causes the problems and can be grouped as economic, political, social, demographic and organisational factors.

Contributory Factors

Political Factors

One of the political factors that contribute to the high rates of community harms in Kimberley is the failure of government officials to understand the causes of the problems that the remote communities face. They, therefore, develop uninformed policies that only work immediately after their implementation but later fail and the issue continues to be a source of distress for the communities. For example, in the year 2007, the government introduced policies that limited the amount of alcohol supplied in Kimberley. However, in 2011 the number of alcohol-related deaths rose. The government did not seek to identify the reason for the failure of the policies but instead set out to find ways to strengthen the policies in the district (Rothwell, 2011). The politicians do not bother to customise the policies that they introduce to fit the communities in Kimberley but rather choose to depend on strategies that have been successful in other regions. Consequently, their efforts to curb community problems always end up failing.

Remoteness is another political factor that Kimberley experiences, thereby, leading to the high levels of community harms. According to Rural Health West (2016), Kimberley has a 97% of extreme remoteness. The remaining 3% of the district not completely accessible since it is also remote. The most developed areas in Kimberley are Kununurra, Derby, and Broome. The three towns are thousands of kilometres away from most of the regions that are well populated. For example, Kununurra is 3250 kilometres away from Perth when travelling by road (Rural Health West, 2016). It is the responsibility of the government to develop all areas of the country. The government has however neglected its responsibility of developing this district. This failure has led to increased death rates since most of the areas are inaccessible. It is, therefore, difficult for the residents in these areas to get the help that they need.

Another political factor that contributes to the high rates of community harms in Kimberley is the failure of the government to initiate intervention programs. Most of the problems experienced in Kimberley are preventable. For example, the government could launch an education program that would involve the district’s residents being educated about the harmful effects of abusing drugs or misusing alcohol. Such programs would help the citizens in Kimberley make informed decisions when faced with difficult situations. The government has also failed to initiate a program that would tone down the health related issues. Hospitals record 8% of preventable health problems in Kimberley (Remote Health West, 2016). It is the responsibility of the government to educate its citizens how to prevent certain diseases in the society as well as offer vaccine for the diseases that require vaccination. Creating these programs would lead to the reduction of community problems such as health issues, high death rates as well as drug and alcohol related crimes.

Social Factors

One of the social factors contributing to the community harms experienced by the indigenous communities in Kimberley is the early exposure of children to stressful situations (Lee, et al., 2012). Children lose their parents at a very young age in Kimberley. They, therefore, have to fend for themselves. The children hardly have anyone to take care of them since most of the other older relatives pass on early as well. At this point in their lives, they do not have jobs or ways of raising money. They also do not have the money required to pay for their education. They resort to committing crimes to get the money needed to meet their basic needs. Failure to do this leads to early deaths within the community, thus, the high death toll of the young. The children could seek a different alternative to deal with the problems that they are exposed to at an early age, which is seeking solace in alcohol and drugs.

The high rates of depression amongst the indigenous people in Kimberley also cause community harms. According to Lee et al. (2012), one of the most common mental related problems amongst the Indigenous communities is depression. Although most of the members of this community do not seek medical attention, statistics collected from general practitioners in the area say that depression is the one problem that their patients mostly suffer. Stone et al. (2015) explain that depression amongst the aboriginals could be caused by the high rates of loss since childhood. The depression that these people suffer leads them to make irrational decisions such as being violent to those around them, committing suicide, misusing alcohol and abusing drugs. These actions lead to a steady rise in the community harms such as high death rates, alcohol, and drug related crimes.

Social factors further include epigenetics of the indigenous communities in Kimberley. According to Stone et al. (2015), the trend that is common amongst the remote communities by the theory that the people in Kimberley have genes that drive them into engaging in activities that harm them on an individual and community level. Families in the district have a habit of coping with grief through doing things such as drinking alcohol, using drugs or committing suicide. The decision to do these things is in many cases, not a choice that one has but instead the genes passed on by the parents are the primary source of influence (Lee, et al., 2012). Consequently, one family may have a record of suicidal intentions while another family has a history of misusing alcohol and drugs. The genes of the people in these communities, therefore, are the major contributors to high death rates, poor health, and criminal activities.

The poor diet amongst the indigenous communities in Kimberley is also a social factor that contributes to the high levels of community problems (Boffa & Tilton, 2009). Most of the families can hardly afford food. Thus, they settle for whatever type of food they get. Hence, they fail to take some nutrients that are vital for the growth of children and development of an active immune system. Consequently, many people fall ill at the slightest exposure to germs. This leads to an increase in the rates of deaths in the district. The lack of some nutrients, such as iron, while children are growing affects the development of the brain (Rosales, Reznick & Zeisel, 2009). Subsequently, when these kids grow up, they have mental health issues, which may cause them to be violent against those around him or her. Excessive intake of some nutrients, such as carbohydrates, causes obesity, which in turn causes health complications that lead to death.

Economic Factors

One of the leading causes of community harms in Kimberley is the high rates of unemployment. According to Rothwell (2011), more than half the population of indigenous people in Kimberley are unemployed. Thus, they do not have the financial capability to meet their basic needs. To escape the demise posed by their unemployment status, they resort to relying on alcohol and drugs. Although this is not an appropriate solution, it seems to the aboriginal communities as their only way out of their problems. Their actions result in the recorded growth in alcohol and drugs related community harms. The unemployment status is also a direct contributor to the rise in crime rates in Kimberley. Most of the people in the district opt to engage in crimes such as stealing to help raise funds required to meet their financial needs.

The economic factors that contribute to community problems in Kimberley further include low wages. Most of the employed people in the district have blue-collar jobs. Their salaries are too low to meet the needs of everyone under their care. The insufficient funds that they have cannot meet needs that seem luxurious to the group such as health insurance. When the members of these Aboriginal families fall sick, it is impossible for them to pay for the healthcare services they need. They, therefore, fail to go to hospitals when sick. The members of the family may also opt to supplement the small salary with money gotten from criminal activities such as selling drugs or stealing. This leads to increased levels of drug abuse in the region as well as drug-related crimes. The stress that comes with the pressure to meet the financial needs of every family member also pushes some of the members of the indigenous communities to commit suicide, which contributes to the increase in death rates in the region.

Cultural factors

These factors may be categorized as specific drugs and non-specific drugs that may influence on use of Amphetamine. The impact of cultural aspect in drug use are norms and values about acceptable patterns on how to use drugs while the non-precise cultural effects are those factors related to western culture that has an impact to the particular attitudes and believes of a country. For example, the secular world, individualism and neo-liberalism, this came as a result whereby an individual feel they have been secluded in the society and therefore opt to engage into drug related activities.

Furthermore, if children are not getting the support of their parents on how they should handle themselves can also cause one engaging into amphetamines related drugs. Additionally, the effects of secularism on the culture of western countries that may cause lack of people sharing their values and how meaningful it is to the society. In other words, some social categories like gender, class and race have a very big impact and influence on encouraging the young youth in engaging in drug related activities. As it can cause limited to resource and exposure to relegation.

For that reason, health effects and use of drugs are motivated by social category, for instance, individuals from poor family or background have poor related health that may expose them on use of Amphetamines and other related drugs. In addition, majority of drug users are unemployed and therefore have enough time to spend taking drugs and at same time they may experience marginalization that may aggravate for majority of problems and hindering them from getting help or treatment

Demographic Factors

One of the demographic factors that contribute to the high rates of community harms in Kimberley is the fact that most of the people in the region are children. According to statistics, approximately 40% of the indigenous population in Kimberley is children that are below 15 years of age (Rothwell, 2011). A different perspective of the analysis of the age of the people in the district reveals that the median age of the population is 22 years (Kimberley Development Commission, 2009). This average age is relatively lower than the median age of Western Australia, which is 36 years. The fact that most of the population in the region is very young and they have to start depending on themselves at a young age without any parental guidance causes the many misguided decisions that these young people make (Rothwell, 2011). The role models that the children in this society have are the misguided youths that they see when growing up. They, therefore, follow their example, which leads them to extreme misuse of alcohol, abuse of drugs, committing suicide and committing crimes.

The population growth in Kimberley is also another demographic factor that contributes to the high levels of community problems in the district. Although population growth in most cases does not cause harm especially in communities with small numbers such as indigenous communities, it is harmful to the aboriginal communities in Australia. According to statistics, the rates of smoking tobacco, using drugs and misusing alcohol steadily increases over the years (Rural Health West, 2016). These habits endanger the lives of the children that are yet to be born. Children that are born in Kimberley have poor health. They may also be born with an addiction to the drugs or alcohol that their mothers were using while pregnant. Therefore, an increase in the population leads to an increase in the number of people in the society that abuse drugs or die while still young. The death rates in the community, thus, rise over the years. The mortality rate amongst the indigenous communities in these areas, hence, remains higher than mortality rates in any other community in Australia.

There is a considerably high population among the indigenous people in Kimberly who do not have formal education. The 2010 statistics indicate that there was a 68% school attendance rate among the natives. The rate is low as compared to the 91% of the non-indigenous people. Only 59% of Indigenous teenagers went to school. However, only fewer people complete their studies. For instance, in 2011, only 52% of individuals aged between 25 and 34 had completed Year 12. Most of these people were from the non-natives group. Clearly, although there is a growth of the size of the workforce, most of them can only provide unskilled labour. The lack of formal education reduces the possibility of having a well-paying job. The lack of adequate income, on the other hand, increases the tendency to engage in crime to acquire more wealth. There is also increased instances of violence at home, resulting in children developing vulnerabilities, such as reduced cognitive and physical wellbeing and low level of emotional maturity (Western Australia Government, 2013).

Organisational Factors

One of the organisational factors that contribute to community harms is the number of police facilities in the region. There are only six stations and six multi-functional facilities. These facilities are only found in Balgo, Warmun, Kalumburu, Peninsula, Looma, and Bidtadanga. The police stations, on the other hand, are located in Broome, Kununurra, Wyndham, Hall & Creek, Fitzroy Crossing, and Derby. Thus, each sub-district has either one multi-functional police facility or one police station. The organisation of these institutions is shortcoming since police officers have to cover a wide area. The citizens living in the remote areas have limited contact with the police officers, and therefore, they can only report after travelling long distances. The number of the police officers is also lower than recommended. The shortage limits the fulfilment of the assigned duties and responsibilities (Adshead & Taylor, 2017). Lack of adequate law enforcement provides an environment that supports the thriving of crimes that harm various indigenous people living in Kimberly.

The shortcomings in the delivery of health services in Kimberly are another factor that contributes to community harms among the native population. There are only five major government hospitals in the whole district. Thus, among the twelve sub-districts, only five have these facilities. The residents have to travel for long distances to get the required treatment. In case of emergencies and accidents, they have to seek the help of volunteers. Lack of accessible health care services increases the death rates. Another problem facing the residents is the shortage of medical practitioners. The specialists are unable to meet the needs of the vast number of patients they have to treat. Most residents, therefore, opt to stay at home or visit the nearby healthcare facilities, such as clinics, which do not have access to all the required resources. The best private health cares are too expensive, and only a few people can have access to the services (ABC, 2015). Clearly, lack of proper organization of health facilities reduces the life expectancy level of the indigenous people while decreasing the probability of having a healthy population.

The organization of the education facilities in Kimberly limits the opportunity to pursue higher education, get better employment, and contribute to the development of the region. The childcare services, for example, are only found in six locations only. People from other areas far from these places have to travel long distances. However, due to lack of adequate funds, they opt to stay at home. The total number of government schools in Kimberly is 22, of which there is only one senior school. There are only 13 schools in the remote areas, which aim at aiding students to prepare for education outside the community. There are only 13 Catholic schools, and only one of them provides years 11-12 (Western Australia Government, 2013). The lack of accessible educational facilities and the limitation of the level of education robs the young people an opportunity to have their aspired future. As a result, there is increased dropout rates, poverty, and crimes.


It is clear that in Kimberly, different factors have led to the use of amphetamine and alcohol, which give rise to various community harms. Kimberly is one of the districts in Australia that is affected by the drug problems. Most people abuse alcohol and amphetamine, which results in the rise of various crimes and community harms. The nature of these harms varies from those affecting the health of individuals, the economic sector, and the social and cultural sectors. The use of drugs is dependent on various factors in the society. The social factors are poor nutrition, being epigenetic, exposure to stressful conditions at a young age, and using alcohol due to stressful conditions. The economic factors, on the other hand, include low wages and high dependency rate, while the organizational factors entail the inadequate police facilities, healthcare centres, and schools. These interrelated factors result in depression of people, resulting in drug abuse and engagement in criminal activities.


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