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9Project management

Project management


Table of Contents

31.0 Project Communication

32.0 Measuring outcomes

43.0 Ethical principles, environmental and occupational health regulations

54.0 Project Sign-off Letter

75.0 Project review


1.0 Project Communication

The critical role of leadership in project activity is to build relationship for performing. First the project has to start by setting the goal(s) which are supported by the specific, measurable and time bound objectives. The project team requires training for interpersonal, functional and professional competence. Adequate information about the beneficiary community, duration of project and resources required need to be timely communicated. A critical analysis of a context, will assure adequate considerations of team needs. This is vital in budgetary allocation and supplement to specific and unseen demands. After the launching, delegation and continuation of project supervision must be ensured to ensure quality and increased value by moral support and enhanced accountability. The project has to be broken into stages depending on demand and time. There has to be a set evaluation strategy involving group focus, monitoring and assessment. This is measured against the project objectives for conclusion.

To support the project team and activities considerations of participant needs as well as project require continuous support. This include the meeting, discussion and working venues, provision of competent subordinate workforce and an efficient technology to aid a good flow of its objectives. It is also critical to plan for continuous meetings to evaluate the project progress and consider alternatives in case there is inevitable threat to specific function. Important support will consider individual and group feedback, to provide the skills, information and clear ambiguity in a timely manner. To ensure learning and development of project participants’ workshops, seminars, external and internal consultation have to be provided for skills development and re-adjustment.

2.0 Measuring outcomes

One of the most appropriate ways of measuring the outcomes of the project is by use of Returns On Investment (ROI). This method is used to quantify the financial returns on investment in a variety of ways including capital equipment, buildings and land among others. ROI compares the costs associated with the project and the actual revenue generated as a result. There are several steps involved in the calculation of ROI. The first step is to quantify the project goals. This is done by calculating the number of hours worked by each project member multiplied by the sales each generates. Afterwards the figures obtained are compared with the set goals to determine progress. The second step is tracking results of the project efforts within a specific time frame like one month, three months or six months. The time frame is determined by the “buying cycles”. Buying cycles is the time taken from the initial contact with a customer until the time he/she makes a decision. This will enable the project manager to determine how many leads were converted to customers and how this generated revenue. The third step is the actual calculation of ROI. This involves actual tracking of revenues from existing customers and projection of revenue to be generated following the project. The actual and projected revenue from new customers with incremental business from existing customer are added together. This revenue is then compared with costs of the entire project to calculate the return on investment (Myers and Barners, 2005).

3.0 Ethical principles, environmental and occupational health regulations

A project carried in the community depicts the culture of the project team. There are social expectations of professionalism and ethical principles set by project managers and respective authority. This is both for protection of the beneficiary community and teams from exercising unethical decisions, activities and pursuance. The principles of covenant, modesty and sacrifice ensure that critical aspects of project dealings have professional standards in line with ethics and integrity. The project has to respect human dignity and rights, ensure integrity build up relationships. It need to promote and alleviate personal distress and suffering by enhancing quality knowledge of professionals and clients and apply it to increase personal effectiveness. Cultural diversity require objective dealings to ensure that the well being of the society. Finally, the products and services from project activity must provide high value, and the surplus be shared equally to benefit the community (Abdomerovic, 2002).

Following the environmental issues and occupational health system, the project must align to the environmental and occupational policies. To support sustainability, the most favorable option of environmental management has to be applied. Such activities ensure prevention, minimization, reuse, recycling, energy recovery and disposal as the least favored option. This ensures conservation of the surroundings in regard to project production system. To ensure the workforce safety, the standards meant for application in organizations need to be applied, monitored and improved. This is through participation by both officials and employees as a collective responsibility. Ethical requirements, environmental and occupational health regulations ensure long-term activities that safeguard the interests of project participants (Kwak, Watson, & Anbari, 2008).

4.0 Project Sign-off Letter

Project Facilitator

Improving Sales through Social Marketing

Place: Emerging Suburbs

Date: 19/10/2012.

Dear Project Manager

In accordance to the agreement reached through negotiation of improving products sales through social marketing, I hereby assure the completion of the project. The project covered the five emerging and developing suburbs around the main city centre. The aim was to locate key distributors by providing information on products, delivery and distribution. The project administrators ensured that vital information about the company brands, contact and location were provided. To assure the project funders, assessment and evaluation done on the focus groups are recorded. Qualitative feedback can also be measured by ongoing calls and consultation from the interested community. Data and findings from external evaluation have also been attached for credibility.

Irrespective of minor challenges encountered such as poor turn up on roadside meetings, other options were reached at by use of calls, messages and emails to reach the minimum number of clients needed. As agreed the team met above 80% of its objectives, ascertaining the goal of the project. The duration was reached at with all the stages implemented following the planned manner. The facilities used in the project have been submitted back with the depreciation rate attached. The project team appreciates the partnership and relationship established for mutual benefit, and will greatly consider such an opportunity in future.





5.0 Project review

Reviewing of the project is one of the key requirements for any given project as it helps to determine if the project processes and outcomes are in accordance to the project objectives. Essentially, reviews should be done twice during the project: at the middle and at the end. The mid-session review is less formal and only requires the reviewer to conduct meetings with the project team members to identify and evaluate successes, failures and successes. The post-project review on the other hand is done to assess what happened throughout the project, that is, what went well or did not go according to the plan which is then recorded for future reference (Buehring, 2012). It is also conducted to establish lessons that can serve as guidelines for future projects. The review can be conducted by external auditors or simply the project facilitator.

The work of the review leader is to seek individual feedback through questionnaires, organize meetings to share feedback and summarize feedback in a written document. The basic questions to form the skeleton of the project post-mortem are what went right, what went wrong and what should be done differently next time. They should be applied to every section of the project; from planning to completion. In this respect, the project can be dissected into various parts probably stages/phases, processes, roles, key skill areas and products. Project post-review should be done soon after the project is completed and should be followed by a comprehensive summary of the feedback. It is a learning board for management to improve methodologies in future projects.


Abdomerovic, M. (2002). Project process interactions. International Journal of Project Management20(4), 315-323.

Buehring, S. (2012). How to do a post-project review. Retrieved on 19th October 2012 from

Kwak, Y., Watson, R., & Anbari, F. (2008). Comprehensive framework for estimating the deployment cost of integrated business transformation projects. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business1(1), 131-139. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Myers, P. and Barners, J. (2005). Measuring outcomes: guidance on outcome evaluation for Sure Start Local Programmes. London: University of London.