Professor Essay Example

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Advertising and Consumer Behaviour


  1. What factors influence the perceived credibility of an informal communications source? List and discuss factors that determine the credibility of formal communications sources of product information

According to Tyagi and Kumar (2008, p.106), formal channel of communication is intentionally established while informal communication channel is not intentionally established. Formal communications occur through well-established channels while informal communications are not founded upon set measures. It is important to get information from credible sources because credible information sources hold accurate information. Credibility of information source impacts the decoding of a given message. Communication sponsors and their perceived objectivity and honesty influences how the receiver accepts communication. Credibility develops on numerous factors, particularly, the perceived source intentions. The credibility of information source is influenced by the perceived source intentions, brand image, choice of endorser or spokesperson, knowledge, expertise, overall reputation and the purpose of the information source; for profit or non-profit.

One of the principal reasons why informal information source such as relatives and friends hold a powerful effects on the receivers conduct is merely because informal sources are perceived to holding nothing to gain from a commodity transaction they recommend. However, informal sources of communication profit informal information source psychologically through presenting information. On-profit information sources hold increased credibility than commercial sources because of the perception that these sources are more objective in assessment of products. Given that consumers acknowledge that the intention of formal sources are profit-centred, they judge the credibility of these sources based on the reputation, the type of service, past performance and service quality. These factors render the image and quality of other commodities. The potential of quality image to instigate credibility is a major reason for development of related brands. Through recognising that a producer with excellent reputation hold increased credibility among customers, scores of firms spend most of their advertising budget on organisational advertising aimed at promoting desirable firm image as opposed to promoting specific products.

With respect to the choice of the endorser, the efficiency of a message is linked to the endorser. The credibility of a spokesperson is powerfully influenced by the attitudes of the audience towards the advertisement. Marketers using celebrities to endorse commodities must ensure that the specific endorsement wordings link with the acknowledged competence of the endorser. The reputation of the person selling the commodity and that of the advertisement medium also hold major effects on the credibility of the message. Objectivity and honesty of the medium affects the acceptance of the advertisement by consumers.

  1. What are the implications of the sleeper effect for the selection of spokespersons and the scheduling of advertising messages?

The sleeper effect entails the case where the persuasive effects of a message actually augment instead of decreasing over time (Batra 2009, p.421). One premise of the rise in the persuasive effect is that while the impact of the source is not credible at the time of reading, the link of the negative signal with the passed message breaks down. This instigates a rise in the overall effect of the message. The sleeper affect impacts advertising messages and spokespersons credibility. This is because the advertising messages must run repeatedly to uphold their persuasiveness. This aspect makes the information source more credible, hence more persuasive. The sleeper effect entails the propensity for convincing message to lose the effect of credibility of information source over time. With respect to the consistency theories, media vehicle, company, endorser and scheduling of an advertisement instigate attitudes towards an advertised product (Batra 2009, p.421). While choosing an endorser, it is advisable to choose a famous individual that will always remain in the minds of consumers. The markets should also choose an endorser who the audience hold powerful attitudes and connect the endorser powerfully to the brand. The source should be well liked, credible and relevant to the product class. The advertisement should be placed first in for-profit advertisements to allow consumers to quickly remember them.

  1. Virgin Airlines uses both magazines and Internet to promote its discount airline business. How would you measure the advertising effectiveness of the two media for promoting the service? Which is likely to be more effective? How to measure the effectiveness of internet and magazine advertising.

According to Sharma and Singh (2006, p.370), internet advertising is very interactive compared to other types of conventional advertising such as magazine advertisements. Internet advertising provides the best pull and push advertising in that traders can attract consumers based on their advertising. Internet advertising hold considerable effect in brand recognition and a single exposure to a web banner creates considerable awareness compared to magazine advertising. Through internet advertising, it is possible to target explicit consumer segments based on their location. The internet holds the ability to compile statistics concerning how many persons viewed each ad on daily, monthly and hourly basis. The internet allows firms to track down the efficiency of their ads through the number of sales and the number of consumers reached through the ad.

The effectiveness of internet advertising can also be measured through converting web visits into purchase transactions. Consumers can repeatedly access an online advert through a mouse click (See figure 1). Similarly, the effectiveness of magazine advertising can be done through evaluating the number of sales, and given their explicit editorial contents, magazines advertising can be effective in attracting distinguished groups of readers and are effective in reaching explicit market segment (O’Guinn 2014, p.279). However, internet advertising is more efficient than magazines advertising given that it hold the potential to reach out to millions of people at once. Internet advertising provides increased access to scores of people.

Figure 1: Effectiveness of Internet Advertising


  1. Which media do you think are suitable for advertising to the 18-24 age groups as opposed to the 55+ age group? Justify your answer with examples and /or secondary data.

According to Griffin (2010, p.520), everyone is on the internet, with 83.4 percent of males and 75.2 percent of females aged between 18 and 24 years accessing the internet. These figures drop below fifty percent mark between 55 and 64 age group. Since scores of the people aged between 18 and 24 have access of the internet and are online, the most preferable medium for this age group is internet advertising. Even if businesses do not sell their commodities online, internet advertising is a cost-effective means of promoting physical business online. According to Gerbarg (2008, p.35), more people aged between 18 and 24 spends considerable blocks of time on daily personal internet use compared to watching TV. Younger audience are willing to experiment with novel content sources, particularly for online services while older audiences increasingly adopt more conventional advertising such as online newspaper subscriptions and premium content for TV.

5. You are the marketing manager for a headache remedy. Your advertising agency has just presented you with two different promotional strategies, one using a humorous approach and one taking an «agony» approach. Which approach would you adopt? Why?

According Divita (2011, p.185), advertising hold a cumulative effect not because the melody remain in the consumers’ mind, but because each excessive exposure to the ad attracts extra experimental buyers some of who are included in the advertisers’ past group of satisfied consumers drawn to attempting the product. If consumers deceived into purchasing a headache remedy find that the remedy cures their headache, they will purchase the product again and attract more buyers because the remedy cures the headache and not because of the manner in which the product is advertised. In this regard, I would employ an agony approach because a headache is something that comes with pain and not laughter. Moreover, the intention of the headache remedy is to cure those in pain.

  1. You are a promotions manager working for the Australian government. Devise an advertising campaign to discourage smoking by young women referring to the communication model shown in Figure 7.1 on the lecture side. Compare your plan with current campaigns used by the Australian government, state governments or local governments. How is your campaign superior? Justify your answer with reference to consumer behaviour.

While marketers may differ in the manner in which they develop advertising campaigns, a general pattern must be followed (Ferrell 2012, p.438) . The first step is to identify and assess the audience who in this case is young female smokers. The second step entails establishing what the campaign accomplishes through defining the advertising objectives; stopping smoking by young female smokers. This advertising campaign will entail a formal information source (the Australian government and a female celebrity who has stopped smoking following the adverse effects of smoking), and is non-profit making campaign. The symbols used will include pictures and written words to catch the attention of the target audience (See figure 2).

Figure 2: Eye Catching Image and Words

Professor 1

The media to be used in the campaign and the media plan should then be selected followed by message creation and establishment of techniques for assessing the effectiveness of the ad. For instance, the media suitable for young female smokers will include internet, billboards and Television as they are easily accessible to the young people. The marketer should establish a advertising platform containing major issues such the increased rates of smoking among young females and the effects of smoking to young females, to be presented in the campaign followed by how much money the campaign will spend (Pride 2010, p.413). The advertising campaign will following communication model.

Professor 2

This campaign will be superior because it acknowledges the information source which is formal. The advertising campaign provides pictures and words besides the appropriate advertising channel which is paid media. The ad clearly defines the target audience, and the effects of cigarette smoking (see figure 4). Moreover, the information source is formal, that is from the government and broadcasted through paid media.

Figure 3: Effects of Smoking

Professor 3

Reference List

Batra 2009, Advertising management. India: Pearson Education India.

Divita, S.F 2011, Advertising and the public interest. Texas: Marketing Classics Press.

Ferrell, C 2012, Marketing principles. London: Cengage learning.

Gerbarg, D 2008, Television goes digital. London: Springer.

Griffin, D 2010, Business with a purpose: Starting, building, managing and protecting your new business. New York: Easy Brain Labs Inc

Hansen, F 2007, Emotions, advertising and consumer choice. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press DK

O’Guinn, T 2014, Advertising and integrated brand promotion. London: Cengage Learning.

Pride, W 2010, Marketing express. New York:

Sharma, S., & Singh, R 2006, Advertising: Planning and implementation. New York: PHI Learning Pvt Ltd.

Tyagi, C.L., & Kumar, A 2004, Advertising management. Atlanta: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Ltd.