Poster One: Mechanisms of Injury
The poster provides a comprehensive outlook of the mechanisms of injury. The writer made a significant effort to mention the four categories of trauma that include: blunt trauma, penetrating trauma, thermal trauma and blast trauma. For a nurse that needs to have a glance at the different categories of trauma, it is apparent that the poster guarantees a good overview. The inclusion of the definitions for the mentioned categories of trauma is also appropriate since it reminds the reader about the specifics associated with each of the mentioned categories of trauma. The inclusion of the sequence of conducting a primary survey is also important to a practicing nurse since it reminds the professional regarding the necessary steps associated with the primary survey while handling an injured individual. The other justification of the writer is evident at the mention of the necessity of conducting a secondary survey after a primary survey. The secondary survey may entail an urgent surgery recommendation or a physical examination.
Even though the details covered by the post are significant to the topic under discussion, it is important to note that there are critical areas of concern omitted by the writer. For instance, it would have been more appropriate if the post had included special conditions associated with the mechanisms of injury. In the case of women, the poster could have mentioned the associated risk mechanisms: both blunt and penetrating as well as the specific conditions that subject women to greater risks such as pregnancy emanating from the susceptibility of the placenta to shear forces caused by blunt trauma (ENA 2007). The other risk conditions that bear importance to the topic encompass paediatrics, geriatrics that entail unintentional falls, obesity and substance abuse. The post also failed to acknowledge the essence of trauma prevention programmes.
Poster Two: Primary Assessment of the Major Trauma Patient
The poster provides a good overview of the major areas associated with the primary assessment of the major trauma patient. The areas include airway and alertness or the C-spine control, breathing or ventilation, circulation or haemorrhage control, disability and exposure or environment. One aspect I like concerning the alertness and airway section is the mention of the significance of determining whether the trauma patient is responsive or not. The poster also mentions the essence of determining whether the trauma patient can maintain the airway or not. The appropriateness of the poster also emanates from its ability to mention the relevant steps that are necessary in all the sections. From the outset, it is proper to state that the poster provides a substantial representation of the proper procedures that are effective in dealing with a major trauma patient.
However, including the signs of airway obstruction such as gurgling and snoring, agitation and abnormal breath sounds in the poster would play a pivotal role towards enhancing the understanding of the topic. Moreover, the poster does not mention the areas of inspection under ventilation management. Some of the important signs to check in the area include the presence of cyanosis, penetrating injury, flail chest, sucking chest wounds and the utility of accessory muscles. For palpation, the professional should feel for tracheal shift, broken ribs, subcutaneous emphysema, and the detection of pneumothorax and haemothorax. In the circulation or haemorrhage control, it would be proper to heighten the necessity of identifying and stopping bleeding as the first priority (Wilkinson & McDougall 2007). The poster has also omitted the need for a secondary survey that is imperative upon the realisation that the patient’s ABC’s are operating normally. The secondary survey entails examinations on the head, neck, and neurological aspect of the patient, chest, abdomen, pelvis and limbs and x-rays where necessary.
Poster Three: Mechanisms of Injury by Dona Holyoak
One important aspect that is evident with the poster is the mention of the importance of determining how the injury occurred as a prerequisite for identifying the expected types and treatment of the injury. The poster also mentions the major areas associated with the injury mechanisms starting with the four major categories of trauma: blunt, penetrating, thermal and blast. The inclusion of the causes of the trauma is also significant towards understanding the effective ways of managing the conditions. As a reminder, the poster also acknowledges the necessity of having skills about mechanisms of injury on the part of the emergency nurses. The appropriateness of the poster is also evident following the mentioning of the primary survey sequence as well as the necessity of a secondary survey.
Even though the poster portrays a general overview of the injury mechanisms and the recommended actions to be implemented by an emergency nurse, it exhibits lapses that are similar to those of the first poster. For instance, it does not mention the special cases related to the mechanism of injury. Some of the most important cases encompass dealing with pregnant women, paediatrics, geriatrics associated with unintentional falls, substance abuse and obesity. The inclusion of the special cases also referred to as the risk cases are significant since it ensures that the emergency nurses implement the correct course of action in managing the trauma. Apparently, prevention is better than cure. However, the poster does not emphasise the importance of prevention over treatment as the fundamental way of dealing with major trauma patients. For instance, the mentioning of injury or trauma factors such as human, energy transfer and the environment would be appropriate for the poster (Currie 2006).
Poster Four: Activation of Trauma and Roles
The poster has an immense contribution to the topic since it commences by highlighting the essential requirements of trauma activation. Some of the requirements mentioned by the poster encompass physicians, ancillary staff and nurses. As a matter of fact, the team of professionals plays a fundamental role towards increasing the survival rate of the patient. However, the second column of the poster is a repetition of the information already provided in the first column. The poster portrays more meaningful information in the third column where it mentions the significance of airway management in the management of trauma. Under the procedure column, the poster also fails to present a seamless flow of information despite the existence of the right facts about the subtopic. The other important aspect of the poster is the mention of the need for keeping patient records throughout the entire trauma management phase.
Even though the poster has mentioned the team of medical professionals associated with the treatment of trauma patients, it does not specify the exact professionals and their respective roles. Some of the professionals in the activation of trauma include the emergency physician, two RNs from the emergency department, nursing supervisor, a technician from the emergency department, radiology and laboratory technicians, emergency department Health Unit Coordinator (HUC) and security officers. The poster also fails to mention the necessity of one emergency physician and two RNs for each trauma patient that is in a critical condition (DOH 2016). The poster also fails to mention the different tiers of trauma activation and the team of professionals that are necessary for the activation procedures.
Poster Five: Roles and Responsibilities of the Triage Nurse
It is evident that the poster provides a wide coverage of the major aspects of the topic. Most importantly, it commences with a definition of triage and the role of the triage nurse thereby familiarising the reader with its content. Rather than generalising the role of the triage nurse, the poster has divided the roles into three sections: primary, secondary and tertiary thereby enhancing the understanding of the specific roles of the nurse in the sections. At the first contact with the patient is the assessment phase where the nurse assesses the patient to determine the care priority. The poster reminds emergency nurses of the need to conduct the assessment within five minutes following the arrival of the patient in the emergency department. The effectiveness of the poster is also evident at the mention of the skills requirement of the triage nurse.
As a matter of fact, the poster has covered the topic substantively. However, the inclusion of a few aspects of the topic such as the introduction and necessity of a nurse triage system would bear paramount significance to the topic (George et al. 1993). The system guarantees a reduction of the wasted time following the arrival of the patient in the emergency department and the onset of the assessment process. Even though the allocated time is five minutes, emergency departments in hospital settings should not assume that the assessment of trauma patients following their arrival at the hospital occurs within five minutes. As a guarantee of enhanced performance and efficiency of the department, conducting regular audits on the department is necessary.
Currie, L M 2006, ‘Fall and injury prevention’, Annual review of nursing research, Vol. 24, no. 1, pp.39-74.
DOH 2016, Trauma Clinical Guideline: Trauma Team Activation Criteria, Washington State Department of Health Office of Community Health Systems Emergency Medical Services & Trauma Section.
Emergency Nurses Association (ENA) 2007, ‘Trauma Nursing Core Curriculum,’ Des Plaines, IL: Emergency Nurses Association.
George, S, Read, S, Westlake, L, Williams, B, Pritty, P & Fraser-Moodie, A 1993, ‘Nurse triage in theory and in practice’, Archives of emergency medicine, Vol. 10, no. 3, pp.220-228.
Wilkinson, D P T C & McDougall, R 2007, ‘Primary trauma care’, Anaesthesia, Vol. 62, no. s1, pp.61-64.