Political Globalization

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    Geography
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    Undergraduate
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Political Globalization

This paper presents a review of literature on political globalisations. It seeks to answer fundamental inquiry questions: What is the link between political globalisation and global governance? What are the actors and Structures involved in Political globalisation? What is the role of political globalisation, and what are the effects of political globalisation?Overall, 15 articles are reviewed to explore into the question, after being sorted into different themes: the link between political globalisation and global governance, the actors and structure political globalisation, the role of political globalisation, the effects of political globalisation.

The link between political globalisation and global governance

The term “globalisation” depicts an increased interconnectedness in economic, political, and cultural issues across the globe, as a result generating a shared social space (Irani et al. 216; Masciulli 3). Because of such apparent inter-connectedness, the globalisation is reasoned by Rafat et al. (385) as entailing a combination of processes aimed at transforming political and social transactions and relations internationally, as demonstrated by the transcontinental flows and networks of activities. Akram et al. (291) also defines globalisation as a process where different world economies, governments, organisations, and people become integrated.

At this stage, although the term globalisation has many definitions that integrate the possibly conflicting theories of globalisation to create a meticulous analytical framework.

Crockett (1) further argues that globalization happens when the societies and countries across the globe experience a process of significant transformation, as they attempt to adjust to a more interconnected world. The shift towards globalized politics is an example of the manner in which the world is has become gradually more interconnected. In respect to politics and globalisation, therefore, some scholars like Michael (3-5) have defined political globalisation as the changing reach of political power. He further defined political globalization as an increasing shift towards multilateralism, ‘transnational state apparatus,’ as well as the materialization of national and global nongovernmental organizations designed to function as watchdogs over governments.

In his analysis of the inherent link between economic globalisation and political globalisation, Michie (88) also argues that economic globalisation remains a disputed process that is intrinsically accompanied by substantial levels of political authority, because national governments have to cooperate with other government in making decisions, in addition to a resultant globalisation of political activities.

Such a multilateral system necessitates a process of political coordination among intergovernmental, governments and transnational agencies intended to necessitate a shared purpose by making transnational regulations and overseeing trans-border activities, such as the WTO. Michie (88) further showed that the function of political economy in the current era of globalisation is to adjust to the current theoretical tools and to recommend a policy tool that efficiently manages them.

While examining the structures and stakeholders in global politics, Jang et al. (1) linked the concept of political globalisation to global governance, which he defined as a creation of neo-liberal paradigm changes in international economic and political relations. Jang et al. (1) further argued that providing capital and market mechanisms privileges over nation-state sovereignty has created gaps in governance that encourage actors from both the private and civil society sectors to take up authoritative roles that were in the past left to the state authority.

For these reasons, the concept of globalised politics could be viewed to be concerned with the interactions of many collective and individual entities that emanate from varied professional and social orientations that create networks essential for addressing issues that are a threat to global communities.

Indeed, Michael (6) contends that within the context of globalization, politics is occurring beyond the state border, where the state relies on the political integration schemes like the European Union, as well as using intergovernmental organizations like the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), and World Trade Organization (WTO). The political activities may as well go beyond a nation’s borders through non-governmental organisations.

Actors and Structure Political globalisation

Jang et al. (1) also examined the fate of global politics at present and in future. In his review, he established that global politics is concerned with matters that tend to be extremely complex for any single state to address single-handedly. This view is consistent with Mandelson’s (1) idea that globalisation of politics seeks to create international order. In their view, humanitarian crises, military conflicts between and within states, climate change and economic volatility pose serious threats to human security in all societies; therefore, a variety of actors and expertise is necessary to properly frame threats, devise pertinent policy, implement effectively and evaluate results accurately to alleviate such threats.

Mandelson (1) and Jang et al. (1), however, agree that several actors describe and shape the existing structures of global governance. Jang et al. (1) listed them as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), multinational corporations, scientific, international organizations, and civil society groups, which collectively influence the global politics.

From his review of literature, Jang et al. (1) identified four general structures: Private governance, Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs), International Governmental Organizations (IGOs), and tripartite governance mechanisms.

The Role of political globalisation

Gabriela (309) examined the role of international organisation in political globalisation. In his view, international organizations are crucial actors in international politics given that they have powers to mediate, resolve disputes, engage in peacekeeping efforts, and apply sanctions to other states. Additionally, they are instrumental in managing significant issues beyond the capacity of a single state, such as global warming, international monetary policies, and health policies.

The subject of the role of political globalisation on standardisation was recently examined by Papadopoulos (2). The author discussed the impact of transnational standard-setting, particularly how the transnational organisations like International Standardization Organization (ISO) has at present come up with more than 16,000 standards to guide on standards of goods and services produced within national borders. While the ISO has no capacity to enforce the standards, the domestic agencies are expected to implement them.

Effects of political globalisation

In his review of the role that the civil society play in globalised politics, Mishra (210) observes that different perspectives exists as regards the future of the nation-state. In his view, globalisation of politics has signalled a shift towards the weakening or erosion of the nation-state. He also argued that there is a trend of forced shift towards embracing a welfare state, adapting the nation-state towards a more neoliberal globalisation.

Globalised politics has also led to the emergence of the concept of “global citizen,” which is represented that organisations that are comparatively independent of nation-states rather than government agencies (Mishra 210). In addition, globalised politics has led to the rise of global civil society and governance, which is viewed as heralding the end of state sovereignty. Mishra (210) further explains that one reason for this is that the inter-state institutions charged with global governance tend to influence the policies and activities of the nation-states. Still, it is important to consider that the interaction between global civil societies and the global governance institutions continues to be mediated using the state sovereignty structures using mechanisms.

In a different review, Kuyper (4) also examined the effects of globalised politics on democracy and state sovereignty. He observed that international organizations with regulatory and technical capacity have occupied the transnational space currently taking part in many forms of governance. In which case, they affect people across the globe. While the nation-states are still the principal of local authority, global authority has become the preserve of international organisations and tends to take away authority, hence portending a degree of risk to the long-established concept of national sovereignty.

Kuyper (4) also contended that political globalisation has led to the weakening of the democracy of states. He based his argument on the standard democratic theory, which contends that a demos needs to make decisions that influence “joint circumstances and common life-chances.” In a typical democratic state, therefore, the citizens are thought to be forming a cohesive demos that is ultimately provided with rights of political equality and ability to attain popular control. Kuyper (4) was concerned that in a globalized world, the authority of international organisation has crisscrossed borders. Here, the nation-states are allowed to affect the lives of citizens in seeming independent states. Again, the international organisation set global standards that individuals in different states are supposed to adhere to. In which case, the State lacks control over issues that affect its citizens, as globalised politics has led to significant global democratic deficit. In contrast, Dar (1) argues that globalisation of politics has led to the spread of democratisation of states, particularly because of the roles of NGOs that promote a range of issues like human rights, accountability of governments, environmental protection and respect to the rule of law.

In related review, Borras (163) discussed that loss of sovereignty and democracy of state has made the role of the state on some governance issues, including land grabbing, uncertain. For instance, the global shifts changing and being changed by modern-day land grabbing have led to the rise of contradictory interpretations of the meanings attached to such shifts. Incidentally, the recent shifts in the global contexts that relate to global land grabbing have meant that the international governance instruments become more like the human rights convention of the Human Rights Council, the voluntary guidelines of FAO and the International Labour Organisation more forceful than the national legislations.

Kuyper’s (4) idea that international standards set by international organisation have weakened state sovereignty is supported by Ruggie (5) in his analysis of the effects of international organisation on global governance. Based on systematic review of literature, Ruggie (5) observed that the United Nations has espoused a set of standards on issues of human rights and business by forming other standard-setting committees and bodies that set out the standards and rules for businesses and human rights. This has left nation-states seeking to participate in international affairs with no option but to comply with them. Examples of these standards include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Labour Organization’s Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.

Political globalization depicts an increasing shift towards multilateralism, transnational-state apparatus,’ as well as the emergence of national and global nongovernmental organizations designed to function as watchdogs over governments. Hence, political globalization is linked to global governance, which he defined as a creation of neo-liberal paradigm changes in international economic and political relations. Several actors describe and shape the existing structures of global governance. They include non-governmental organizations (NGOs), multinational corporations, scientific, international organizations, and civil society groups, which collectively influence the global politics. Overall, they are crucial actors in international politics given that they have powers to mediate, resolve disputes, engage in peacekeeping efforts, and apply sanctions to other states. Additionally, they are instrumental in managing significant issues beyond the capacity of a single state, such as global warming, international monetary policies, and health policies. Despite this, political globalisation has led to the weakening of the democracy of states. It has signalled a shift towards the weakening or erosion of the nation-state, as nations lose their sovereignty.

References

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