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Plan, Design, Deliver and Evaluate a HRD Cultural Change Program Essay Example

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Human Resource Development Cultural Change Program

In Military Hierarchical Organization

Human Resource Development Cultural Change Program

In Military Hierarchical Organization

The success in war and peace registered by several military organizations all over the world has for a long time depended on leadership, training, personnel and technology or an integration of some or all the factors (Biddle, 2004). Most recently, the idea of culture and attitude has been added to the initial variables and it is proving to be very promising as far as improving the learning and training efficacy in the military organizations. While military culture is used as a way of enforcing strict discipline, maintaining the hierarchical structure, adhering to a particular way of thinking and conducting day to day activities according to values there is no enough literature that validates its effectiveness.

Human resource development cultural program consists of a set of experiences and ideas as well as methods that the military should be exposed to in order to have efficacy in their day-to-day operations and during war. The program is structured in a way that it realizes its objectives within a given time frame. Studies in culture of the military field have shown several practices and principles. These include: use of limited force during war, effects of institutional growth in military units, impact on doctrine, impediments to military innovation, implications for development of leaders, ramifications of insubordination, effect on learning abilities of military organization and the source of disagreements with provincial reconstruction teams (Legro, 1995). Despite the extensive literature on military culture, the application of the term has always been underutilized and is yet to attain its potential in promoting positive attitude and improving learning abilities. The program targets all individuals in the military and is structured in a way that different cadres in the military have varying learning objectives. In the event of execution, the program uses a variety of methods to ensure that learning is made easy and interactive. Objectives that are used in the sub-sections the contents are specific, measurable, achievable, and realistic and time bound. The program endeavors to change most of the aspects of the military culture so that full potential of the military can be realized.

Human resource development program has several objectives: firstly, it provides new employee orientation. Human resource development programs ensure that new employees get the tools and information they need to be successful on the job. This includes presentations on company history and its strategic objectives, organizational structure and job-specific policies and procedures. By providing instruction on how to complete operational tasks such as sending email, setting up and attending meetings or submitting status reports, this overview information allows new employees to minimize the time it takes to function effectively. Turning to culture, the new employee orientation ensures that the military personnel properly and efficiently use the communication systems and the new technology. Military has had a culture of stagnation and conservativeness thus introducing new methods and techniques of performing duties is greatly recommended.

Secondly, human resource development helps employees to progress in their careers. Career development programs help ensure employee retention, saving the company the money it costs to recruit, interview, hire and train new staff. By providing opportunities for employees to register for courses, obtain reference and resource material, access online training and get the coaching and mentoring they need to advance in their careers, human resource development organizations help employees improve their skills and knowledge. By clearly defining job descriptions and associated competencies, Human resource professionals let employees know what they need to work on in order to get a promotion, secure a new role or advance into management. By encouraging employees to align their development objectives with the company’s strategic goals, human resource professionals ensure that all development supports the company’s mission. In the military environment where the best is required for the sake of winning wars and employing the best tactics, human resource development should be a regular practice. This is important more so when it comes to the changing of military culture. Lastly, human resource development serves the purpose of identifying performance gaps. Human resource development professionals help managers develop long-range plans. By assessing the skills of existing staff, these professionals help identify performance gaps and design programs to mitigate those issues. For example, if the company seeks to decrease product defects, increase customer satisfaction and eliminate waste, but employees lack skills in process improvement, Human resource development professionals need to purchase or develop programs that develop skills in quality management. By enabling employees to get certified as Six Sigma professionals, human resource development teams contribute to the company’s growth and sustainability. They also implement initiatives, such as diversity training and coaching or mentoring programs, to ensure that employees share their knowledge and experience to function effectively as a team (Craig, 1996). This enables employees to achieve strategic goals.

Second, there is improved learning capacity and employee performance. Patricia McLagan (1983) defines human resource development as «the integrated use of training and development, career development and organizational development to improve individual and organizational effectiveness.» According to this and related definitions, the main focus of HRD lies in improving the capabilities of employees and training. Organizations that focus on training and improving the skills, attitudes, values, knowledge and perspectives of their workforce are likely to retain employees that contribute it to the benefit of the organization and utilize their full potential for its success. Swart et al. (2005) asserts that human resource development activities reduces staff turnover by 7.05 percent yearly.

Third, employees who undergo human resource development experience general effectiveness. This in turn makes the organization to be effective. According to C. S. Lakshmi (2005) human resource development increases organizational effectiveness; Trained and talented workers contribute directly to the success of an organization. Human resource development stresses on continually improving the competencies and motivating, effectiveness and dynamism and of its employees; developing problem solving skills and positive attitudes; upgrading collective and individual experience, perceptions and knowledge; and improving their competitive skills. These and related activities fine-tune workers to integrate and align their personal goals with company goals.

Lastly, military staffs that undergo the process of human resource development usually depict increased involvement and communication. Juani Swart et al. (2005), asserts that human resource development improves employee involvement and intra-organizational communication. Human resource development practices focus on continually improving the culture of organizations and measuring, improving involvement, enhancing teamwork and participation activities.

The military can be trained using different methods and techniques depending on the nature of the training and the resources available. These methods may include:

Simulators. These are used to copy real work experiences. Many of the simulators are quiet expensive but are indispensable for jobs like learning to fly a 747 airplane. The training of astronauts also involves a wide use of simulators to copy the challenges and gravitational changes experienced on a space tour. Similarly the military can also use video games, especially those that train people on driving and shooting for training of soldiers.

. Sometimes training experts recommend that one train through undergoing the actual experience or meeting the real challenge. Some of the examples of on-the-job training include reading a manual – which is quite boring, but intense way of acquiring knowledge about a task. On-the-job training involves a combination of observation, explanation and practice. Some parts of the military training is always done as apprenticeship where they train by doing the actual activity. These may include understanding some instructions during the war or how to understand the techniques used by an enemy.On-The-Job Training

This provides the employees with an opportunity to get training one-on-one from professional. Caching/mentoring method is normally done after the employees have been taken through a more formal process aimed at expanding their knowledge. In the military environment coaching is appropriate and effective when there is a formal coaching program between officials at a higher rank and their immediate juniors. Coaching/mentoring provides trainees with an opportunity to ask questions and receive detailed and straight forward answers — something they may not receive in a learning environment with a large group of learners. .Coaching/Mentoring

In the military set up, lectures are not common but can be necessary during induction of the new recruits or when there is an emergency.. This method of human resource development is usually done in a classroom-format. The main advantage of lecture method is that large chunks of information can be disseminated to a lot of people within a short period of time. It has been said to be the least effective of all training methods. Lecture method is characterized by one way movement of information and in most cases there is no interaction between the trainer and the trainee. It is also known to be quite boring. Research shows trainees only retain 20 percent of what they are taught using the lecture method. Lectures

. This method allows the employees to dramatize and emulate what can happen in the work place. Key skills which are usually learnt during role playing include teamwork and negotiation. A role play can happen between two or more people simulating a situation that could occur in the work environment. Role playing can be practiced by splitting a group of people into several pairs and made to perform in front of the others. This method can be applied in linking theory and practice, but may not be liked by people who do not feel comfortable acting in front of a crowd or a group of people. In the military context, role playing can be done in the natural war environment where on group acts as the attacker while the other takes the defensive role (Swart et al., 2005). Role Playing

. This method of learning gives one a break from the classroom monotony. Outdoor training usually targets to develop teamwork skills. Examples include: Adventure or wilderness training – the learners live outdoors and do activities like whitewater rafting, mountain climbing and sailing. Outdoor training can be high or low impact depending on the nature of the skills needed to be developed by employees. Low-impact training — equipment may include simple props or permanently tethered «low ropes» course. In the military environment, high-impact training may involve using a 40-foot «high ropes» course, rappelling or rock climbing. This type of training is more beneficial to active and outgoing trainees. One disadvantage is that trainers might be distracted. Outdoor Training

This method of training is always used together with other training methods. To be efficient and successful, training films and videos should focus on a specific objective. Films and videos can keep trainees attention only if they are produced effectively. They are also good at stimulating discussion on certain specific issues after the film or video has been watched. Though films and videos are good and effective training tools, they share the same disadvantage as the lecture method since there is no formal interaction from the trainees (Kraiger and Herman, 2009). Films & Videos.

. These provide trainees with an opportunity to analyze and reflect on real workplace issues. In case studies, trainees develop and improve their analytical and problem-solving skills and provide practical examples of theory or principle. Case studies also make employees to develop a strong sense of teamwork as the groups deal with challenges together to come up with a plausible solution to a certain problem. All types of problems areas could be covered, for example, how to deal with an enemy that is using a particular war tactic.Case Studies

In the military context, planned reading can be used effectively since the military trainees may not good at creating time for private reading.. This is a pre-stage preparation to the formal methods of learning. This stage might be recommended if some learners need to have specific areas of knowledge before going to the team-building session or classroom. Basically, this method provides employees with a more desirable idea of what the objectives are, giving them an opportunity to think of any questions in advance. Planned Reading

The training outline format for human resource development program assumes the following format.

: SHOOTINGTitle of Training

: Accuracy in shootingTopic and Area of Training

: one hourTime

: in the first 10minutes there should be an introduction on how to hold the gun. Then in the next 40 minutes, the military should be trained in shooting an enemy from different distances and angles. The lesson should then be summarized in the last 10 minutes by pointing out mistakes and success.Content and Instructional Plan

: different types of guns, bullets, statue of human and shooting boards.Materials Needed

: The Sharp Shooter by Roosevelt. Pg. 12-16., How to be Good at Shooting by Training Resources and References

: The learners are taken to a secluded area and given different targets. Their accuracy in shooting is then observed.Method of Evaluation

: This is done by monitoring performance in the field as the military perform different activities. Observations can then be made on how the training has enhanced their shooting ability.Evaluation/ Follow-up

From the fore going, military techniques and methods of doing things as well as culture can be transformed by using the modern ways of training. This involves evaluating a certain human resource development program in terms of its effectiveness and necessity. It is also prudent to consider the methods of administering the program as well as the time that it will take. Finally, a follow up activity is crucial so that the program owners can monitor and evaluate the program to see whether it was a success.


Brown, K. G., and Sitzmann, T. (2011). “Training and Employee Development for Improved Performance.” In APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Vol. 2, Selecting and Developing Members for the Organization. Edited by Sheldon Zedeck, 469–503. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Craig, R. (1996). “The ASTD Training Development Handbook: A Guide to Human Resource Development. New York: McGraw Hill.

Kraiger, K., and Herman, A. (2009). “Benefits of Training and Development for Individuals and Teams, Organizations, and Society.” Annual Review of Psychology 60.1 (January 2009): 451–474.

Lakshmi, C. S. (2005). Human Resource Development in Public Enterprise. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

Legro, W. J. (1995). Cooperation Under Fire: Anglo-German Restraint During World War II. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

McLagan, P. (1983). Models for HRD Practice. Washington: ASTD Press.

Stephen Biddle, S. (2004). Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Swart, J., Mann, C., Brown, S., Price, A. (2005). Human Resource Development: Strategy and Tactics. Boston: Harvard Business School.