Phonology Essay Example
Specific differences in the transcriptions
Instead of using a fricative the child uses a stop in word final position.
Instead of using an affricate the child uses a stop in word initial position.
Instead of using a lateral approximant the child uses a stop in word initial position.
Instead of using a velar the child uses a uvular in word initial position.
Instead of using an alveolar the child uses bilabial in word initial position.
Instead of using a fricative the child uses a nasal in word initial position.
The child voices voiceless sounds in word initial position.
The child omits a lateral approximant in word medial position.
The child brings forth back vowels in word final position.
The child omits trills and nasals in word medial and word final positions respectively.
The child uses a stop instead of a fricative in word final position
Rules to predict the homophones
/s/ ® [t] /— #
/dʒ/ ® [d] /#—
/l/ ® [d] /#—
/k/ ® [g] /#—
/l/ ® [g] /#—
/p/ ® [b]/ #—
/u/ ® [o]/ — #
/d/ ® [g]/ #—
The three sounds, being in complementary distribution, occur in different word positions. The sound [ç] appears before [i] in the medial environment. The sound [ᵩ] appears before [u] in the environment of final position of the word and the sound [h] appears before [o] in the word initial position. The sounds are not contrastive. They do not appear in the sane phonetic environment.
Yes it is possible. The underlying alternant is [h] while the derived alternant are [ᵩ] and [ç].
The distinctive theory which explains the features of different sounds that distinguish them from others can explain this i.e., the three sounds appear in different positions and are followed by the different vowels which makes the place of articulation and manner of speech different from each other (Edwards 2003, 35-36).
The sound [ʃ] appears before [i] in different word positions while the sound [s] appears in different other positions but never in the same position. This means that there are no minimal pairs in the two sounds in Japanese and they are not contrastive sounds. The sounds never appear in the same phonetic environment.
The derived sound in this case is [ʃ].
The sound [s] surfaces as [ʃ] in front of [i]
The two sounds never appear in the same phonetic environment. The sound [t] appears before [i] in the words while the other sound [tʃ] can appear everywhere else. This shows that they are not contrastive sounds. The lexical from of the sounds is therefore [t].
The distributional facts of the sounds are related in a way that shows that both the sets of sounds are not contrastive pairs and therefore there are no minimal pairs in the pairs of sounds so considered in the Japanese language.
Edwards, Harold. 2003. Applied Phonetics: The Sounds of American English.
New York: Delmar Learning
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