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Perception and Assumption a Manager Posses in

A Workplace

Question One

“Perception is an active process by where people interpret stimuli to create a meaningful experience of the world (Lindsay & Norman, 1977).” Organizations that treat their employees fairly with integrity are more likely to produce a more committed employee breed that increases productivity. Lenses are vivid descriptions that are used to map the contours of fairness. There are six contours of fairness;

Lens 1: Organizational Justice

The first lens is mostly common among Human Resource departmental managers who pass judgments about organizational equality concerning matters of corporate policy. Performance appraisal is singular organizational lens used to ensure fair decisions are made. Some of the examples include the selection and recruitment of new employees, the extent of the level of compensation, and reward. This clause provides equal recognition or all the people in any workplace.

Lens 2: Socially Just Distribution of Goods

The second lens is usually used as a primary tool in the executive discussion, to determine fair pay, bonuses, and rewards. It incorporates three theories that are, the rational choice theory, game theory, and justice theory. All this arguments tries to utilize a universal principle of maximizing profits and minimizing costs. These profits determine the size of the amount to be paid as welfare. These theories give employees bargaining rights in case of inequality and legal rights in the event of exploitation.

Lens 3: Principles of Outcome

The third lens is usually used in the executive decisions to determine end month pay, size, and distribution in the corporate sector. It also defines the pay changes in case of social mobility. The level of performance in some areas such as those involving commissions possesses direct relation to the size of the salary. Thus, pay in this sector is determined by demand and contribution.

Lens 4: Capability

The fourth lens is usually used to amend desired the Human Resource department and social policies. These systems ensure the equal provision of opportunities’ and prevention of any form of discrimination. Its responsibility lies with the corporate social issues such as exploitation, discrimination, and child labor. It creates room for positive discrimination through advocating for women equal representation in the top positions.

Lens 5: Temporal Perspective

The fifth lens is concerned with the survival and sustainability of the industry. Its state the social responsibility it has to the society, the level of competition it faces and the viability of the administration. The lens also tries to protect the financial state of the corporation by controlling debts and payments of pension’s funds. It also raises questions about the justice systems such as when it fails to protect it from foreign competition.

Lens 6: Matter of Interpretation

This lens is considered who is makes all the decision of the corporate. It is the work of the manager to ensure the top players are kept happy, and the employees are conscious of what the organization expectation from them.

All this six contours improves the manager ability to sustain and improve the corporation. It also focuses on employment opportunities to ensure the right people for the right jobs are employed (Lindsay & Norman, 1977).

Question 2

Globalization has a tendency to bring people from different cultures who possess different attributes and personalities. There exist barriers that prevail among peoples perception towards other people. Some of these Obstacles include:


The stereotype is the biased general judgment that people perceive towards other individuals or groups basing on their background, age, gender, race and ethnicity. These situations are common in workplaces where one group assumes its superior position over the other, especially with immigrants. Stereotypes frequently generate a situation known as a self-fulfilling prophecy. “The progression occurs when people spontaneously behave as if an established stereotype is accurate and the general reaction ratifies the stereotype (Snyder, 1977).”

Halo effect

This event occurs when a perceiver uses positive or negative singular characteristics as his/her focal point of judgment. Such situation can be attributed to the physical size of a person, where a fat person is considered, lazy without a full assessment of his/her skillset.


This reflects a situation where a person ascribes his personal attributes and feelings to judge others. Historical evidence has shown that a person emotional state can influence his/her perception of the emotional state of others. There exist guidelines and mechanisms that help protect ourselves from unpleasant or unacceptable truths. For instance, a person who is honest and trustworthy may perceive others to be also honest and trustworthy as a way to ease their anxiety (Waller, 1995).

Perceptual distortion

These situations are prevalent in working environments, where an individual protects his ego from his collogues by projecting feelings and attributes onto others. There are cases where a person may turn a blind eye or even give inaccurate or inadequate information to protect his/her job and work relationships.

Selective perception

Stereotypes persist due to this situation where people pay closer attention to some parts of the working environment while ignoring others basing on their background. “Previous experience, anticipations, and beliefs shape the events we tend to notice and which we tend to ignore (Waller, 1995).” This transpires mostly in executive departments where, the sales and marketing see changes in demand while information technology department observes the changes in the technology in respect to their products.

Question Three

The central issue that arises from analysis of perception and assumption is how this knowledge helps one to become a better manager.


A manager should avoid the tendency to favor some employees at the expense of others. This creates internal conflicts that distract workers from achieving organizational goals. When a manager likes a subordinate, the subordinate is likely to receive favors which hinders progress (successes is attributed to internal causes, while failures is attributed to external causes (Heneman, 1989). Personal relationships hinder effective control and action towards accountability of employees work. Although some employees have likable personality compared to others, a better manager should be able to control this, to ensure progress.


This refers to a situation where a competent manager apprehends actions to situations without a broad assessment. His/her decisions should not originate from a personal perspective nor result in a personal gain. The manager should be able to create and enhance team between the main players in his/her department. Also, the manager should be aware that every decision has an effect on the organization.

Globalization has depicted the world as a small place, as it has centralized different groups of people at different locations. A good manager should respect the cultural beliefs and background of his employees and should at all times avoid biases. He/she should be able to understand that different people have different personalities and attributes. This ensures proper treatment and engagement among workers.

Respect between the manager and employees ease the level of submission to authority. It also prevents legal procedures against the organization due to cases that arise from discrimination or disrespect by its employees.

Patience and Thoughtfulness

A good manager should be able to understand that different employees have different capabilities. He/she should take careful considerations in assigning roles among his team members and allow them to work at their pace. At times, owing to a good financial year a manager should be able to give bonuses and rewards to outstanding employees.


Heneman, R., Greenberger, D., & Anonyuo, C. (1989). Attributions and Exchanges: Effects of Interpersonal Factors on The Diagnosis Of Employee Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 466-476.

Lindsay, P., & Norman, D. (n.d.). Human information processing: An introduction to psychology.

Snyder, M., Tanke, E., & Berscheid, E. (n.d.). Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 656-666.

Waller, M., Huber, G., & Glick, W. (n.d.). Functional Background as A Determinant Of Executives’ Selective Perception. Academy of Management Journal, 943-974.