Outline essay Example

  • Category:
    Anthropology
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    3
  • Words:
    2010

Migration of Modern humans from Africa.

MIGRATION OF MODERN MAN FROM AFRICA.

MIGRATION OF MODERN MAN FROM AFRICA

When and how did our ancestors leave Africa?

Introduction

The modern models are giving suggestions about the dispersal of our ancestors (King, A. (2004). The Homo sapiens, with no doubt evolved from Africa. But now the question when did they depart from the cradle place Africa to colonize the other inhibitors of the world, is the song of the scientific and anthropology researchers that play regularly. These suggestions are our key interest in our study throughout this essay.
The overriding question is when and how did the earliest man migrated from Africa. Modern man mainly ascended from 100,000 to 200,000 years before and his origin is evidenced to e from Africa. But when and the way this contemporary hominoid ancestry then distributed from Africa has extensively been debatable and controversial.

The migration of our ancestors from Africa which is believed to be the cradle home of the man has a diversified dateline (Clive Oppenheimer, (2011). Many researchers and anthropologists perceive divergent thoughts and evidences to prove the exact time the ancient man left Africa. Sometimes back, the big questions that existed were: When did our ancestors migrate? Why? Have there been multiple waves? How can we tell? The modern evidences has actually given a dim of light thus giving room for us to better comprehend the time when our ancient grandfathers moved from Africa as well as the manner in which they did it.

In our study in this essay, we shall be focusing on the views of different anthologists and their respective evidences concerning the migration of our ancestors from their original home Africa. Recently, there are diversified number of discoveries, evidences and insights on the topic and eventually each one of them is suitable and appropriate for studies.

Essay Outline

The migration of the modern humans out of Africa might be earlier times than the scientist believed; the clam is with respect to the new researches made. The modern man dispersed in several waves of migration as they left Africa. The researches made by scientists suggest that the departure of the ancient man from Africa commenced as from 40,000 to 70,000 years before. Clive Oppenheimer, (2011) controversially, the new evidence devised by scientific anthropologists says, the stone artifacts which were of late discovered around the Arabian Desert dates at least 100,000 years thus suggesting the migration of the modern man took place earlier than the scientists suggested.

To solve this thought and mystery conflict, Katerina Harvati and her colleagues who are paleoanthropologists in one of the Germany’s universities evaluated the possible four competing wave’s out-of-Africa. The investigators applied these wave models to suggest the time of old man dispersal. From the result of the study, the leading wave of migration followed the route to the southern coast of Arabian Peninsula back 130,000 years. The preceding wave exited through the northern part probably 50,000 years before. Harvati continues to say that, the severe famine and drought that stroke the eastern Africa early 75,000 to 135,000 years before most probable could be the cause of the migration of our ancestors into other regions of Africa and outside Africa. About 75,000 to 50,000 years ago, Africa anticipated favorable climate and conditions which could actually inhibit the migration of our African ancestors.

Can climatic alterations be among the consequences for the departure of our ancestors from the ancestry land Africa? The researchers conducted several discoveries later when they analyzed the sediments deposits from Oman and the bursts of rains. The sediments therefore offer a 160,000 years old evident of the climate conditions of Africa. On the other hand, the sediment deposits suggest the ancient man migrated from Africa to Southern Asia between 75,000 and 130,000 years ago. They departed in multiple chapters probably because of the prompt rain bursts. The suggestion actually is contradicting the theory which claims that the ancestors from Africa towards Southern Asia through the Arabian coastline migrated all at the same time approximately 50,000 to 60,000 years ago.

Many years ago, humans departed from their cradle home in Africa and migrated through the Middle East towards Europe. Early January 2014, scientists discovered the initial fossil vestiges, a fractional skull from cave in Israel, which actually seemed to document that exodus. The skull dated 55,000 years thus appropriating the period which the scientists had suggested the modern man had inhabited the land.

Hugo Reyes-Centeno, a paleoanthropologist supports the claims of Professor Katerina Harvati concerning the ancestral African exodus at around 130,000 years ago. This suggestion is fundamentally reinforced with paleo-archaeological evidences. For instance, jawbone which was discovered in Zhirendong, a cave located at Guizhou province in China and a fractional cranium discovered at Tam Pa Ling in Laos. The two remains dated around 50,000 to 60,000 years ago. Therefore, probably, the earlier date could be the time when this modern man had left Africa.

The archeological evidences on the earliest inhabitation of humans in outside Africa are some of the facts on the date when the modern man left Africa simply because man is believed to have originated from Africa. Therefore, the investigations from the archeologists typically say that approximately 50,000 years ago is the date when made was evidenced to live off-African boundaries (Turney et al., 2001). Archeological evidences could be compromised, therefore, the biological scientist further focused on the DNA composition of the study for more evidences. They claimed that there is a possibility of older humans inhabiting outside Africa could be found. The early examination into DNA confirms the departure of the human from Africa was nearly 50,000 years before (Quintana-Murci et al, 1999) thus echoing the suggestion of the archeologists.

Alywyn Scalley and Richard Durbin from Cambridge University applied the concept of DNA evaluation numerals to re-calculate the fragmented range between African and non-African inhibitors. The results confirms that the non-Africans had departed from Africa roughly between 100,000 and 120,000 years ago (Scalley and Durbin, 2012). This dating is greatly in consistent with former archeological supports, which are evidencing the inhibition of modern man in Middle East at approximately 115,000 years ago (Schwarcz, 1988).

When the humans left Africa they left behind footprints which are still viable up to date. When scrutinized and evaluated through recording the appearance of the hereditary markers of our ancestors, we therefore perceive the picture of the time when and how they dispersed throughout the world. With respect to the heritable and paleontological records, the modern humans began to migrate from Africa roughly between 60,000 to 70,000 years ago as a result of climate change. Eurasians landmass colonizers originated from currently known as Yemen in Djibouti and cross through the Bab-al-Mandab strait. These colonizers were beach-combers who extended greatly at the coastal of India and eventually arrived at South East Asia and Australia at approximately 50,000 years back. Considerably latter than 50,000 years, another group arrived at inland trek into Middle East and Southern Central Asia.

The first ancestral species to migrate from Africa is believed to be Homo ergaster since his remains are evidences which spread to southern Eurasia nearly 1.75 million years back (Turney, et al (2001). The second group was the species of Homo erectus who dispersed following the eastward route and eventually its remains were discovered in South East Asia by 1.6 million years ago. Another theory suggests that hominids left from Africa earlier before even Homo ergaster evolved i.e. back around 2 million years which is before the earliest dates stipulated for existence of Homo erectus in the Asian Continent. This theory was too empowered by the genetic study through the evaluation of DNA researches. Several evidences have been discovered from the genetic study of these remains and the suggestion states that expansion from Africa took place about 1.9 million years back and genetic factor drift taking place between Asian and African inhabitants by past 1.5 million years.

The man could have been stable to disperse when they had gained the stability. The first ancestors to migrate from Africa probably took place after they possessed the upright physical posture and cultural characteristics which are required for movement through the deserts in north of Africa and the Middle East (Turney, et al (2001). Therefore, the first man who possessed these features was dated up to 1.7 million years ago. The modern man started to migrate from Africa within the past 60,000 years ago, according to the chromosomal and physical evidence deduced by the experts. These influences of migration of the earliest man from Africa involved the movements that followed the eastward route via southern Asia at around 1 million years back and the other motion took the Western Europe route approximately 900,000 years ago.

At around 100,000 years back, the modern man had migrated and expanded into three species. The DNA of human vestiges which were gotten from Denisova cave in Russia advocates the fact that the modern species of man migrated at around 60,000 years ago. However the modern investigations about the usage of stone tools which were discovered in India dated back to about 74,000 years, those in Yemen dated in between 70 and 80 thousand years ago and those in United Arab Emirates dates almost 80,000 years. Most of these tools take after the ones used during the African middle Stone Age technology while others closely resembles those used by Neanderthals in Europe. Therefore, this confirms that probably, during this time range, was the exodus date for the man from Africa.

Conclusion

Actually, it is not yet confirmed the exact date for the dispersal of the modern man from Africa into other places (King, A. (2004). The scientists and paleoanthropologists are up to current devising and discovering new evidences which would correctly suit the universal question, when and how did our ancestors leave Africa

Although there are divergent evidences, claims and suggestions that tends to explain when our ancestors left their original homeland Africa and dispersed all over the world to colonize other creatures, the most probable evidence to appropriately answer this question is that of the archeologist.

. The knowledge of genes alteration and the calculations of the quantity of genetic variations between distinguished species or group of man develop a «molecular clock» which decodes how long ago the species communally owned a common forefather.gene mutation ratesFossil remains confirm the evidence indicating that new humans developed in Africa at approximately 195,000 years ago (McDougall et al., 2005). Hereditary data approves this, presenting that living creature has a common origin from an African ancestor who roughly was living at this time (Soares et al., 2009). The recent research from different faculties of study such as: anthropology, scientists and paleontology have provided the light by uncovering the ultimate accurate date that our ancestors left Africa. Actually, this date is older than what scientists previously believed. The whole of these estimates fundamentally hinge around one number that is, the one

References

Mittnik, et el, (2013). A Revised Timescale for Human Evolution Based on Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes. Current Biology.

Langergraber KE, et al (2012). Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

McDougall, I, Brown, F. H., & Fleagle, J. G. (2005). “Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia.” Nature.

Quintana-Murci, et al (1999). “Genetic evidence of an early exit of Homo sapiens sapiens from Africa through eastern Africa.” Nature genetics.

Schwarcz, H. P et al (1988). “ESR dates for the hominid burial site of Qafzeh in Israel. Journal of Human Evolution, 17(8), 733-737.

Soares, P. et al (2009). “Correcting for purifying selection: an improved human mitochondrial molecular clock.” The American Journal of Human Genetics.

Turney, C. S et al (2001). “Early human occupation at Devil’s Lair, southwestern Australia 50,000 years ago.” Quaternary Research.

Clive Oppenheimer, (2011). “Eruptions that Shook the World”. Cambridge University Press.

King, A. (2004). From Africa new francophone stories. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

King, A. (2004). From Africa new francophone stories. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.