Organisational Behaviour and Management

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3Conflict Management

Organizational Behavior and Conflict Management

Organizational Behavior and Conflict Management


Ideally, conflicts are inevitable either between individuals, companies or within firms. However, teamwork is incredibly useful and unavoidable in efforts to promote open discussions on diverse perspectives and integrate them into viable solutions to foster constructive mutual coexistence. In this regard, there is a need to employ most effective and appropriate theories to promote an appropriate resolution to conflicts.

First Article

Tjosvold, D., Wong, A.S, and Feng Chen, N.Y., 2014. Constructively Managing Conflicts in Organizations. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav. 1(1), pp.545-568.

Indeed, conflicts are destructive or constructive and inevitable in organizations. Conflicts occur in many forms and situations, the aspect that made scholars develop several theoretical frameworks for conflict resolution such as integrative negotiation theories among others. The author asserts that these approaches tend to mask some of the reliable findings required to guide practice and boost our understanding. Thus, the article incorporates varied frameworks in pursuit of coming up with a more reliable model of solving conflicts in organizations. According to Tjosvold, Wong & Chen (2014) there exists a considerable conformity between the contributors of constructive conflict although the agreement is masked by utilization of different terms and concepts. In this regard, the author argues that the success of constructive conflict depends on the model of negotiation employed in the organization. However, employment of an open-minded discussion appears to be the ideal choice as far as the success of the process is concerned. According to the authors, to a achieve a constructive conflict the involved parties need to express their ideas in a precise manner, but at the same time considering and taking into account each other’s arguments and ideas.

The author has used different concepts to bring on board a profound understanding of the conditions and dynamism under which differences can be managed and solved in more constructive manner. The author suggests that the protagonist should be allowed to express their own ideas and at the same time listen and understand the opposing points. By doing so, they are likely to promote constructive conflict. Also, the article proposes that mutual benefits are crucial antecedents as far as open-minded discussion is concerned. The findings of the research identify that skills and relationships are vital in helping both employees and the employer to deal effectively with their increasingly sophisticated conflicts. For example, the study asserts that training studies can be used to show how the model supported by the concept of mutual benefit can be employed in various challenging settings. The author suggests that managers should have alternative ways of dealing with conflicts and as a result select the best approach that suits their situation.

Conversely, despite open-minded approach leading to effective results, it fails in some cases when it is employed inappropriately. Therefore, the ultimate conclusion of the researcher raises some questions regarding how the relationship between open-minded negotiations and the concept of mutual benefit results in constructive conflict. Besides, the researcher fails to identify conditions and actions that prove to the protagonist that they have an independent relationship. The research work forms the basis of a more detailed research regarding organizational behavior and conflict management in the near future.

Second Article

Volkema, R.J. and Fleck, D., 2012. Understanding propensity to initiate negotiations: An examination of the effects of culture and personality. International Journal of Conflict Management, 23(3), pp.266-289

The article describes cultural effects and personality on the inclination to initiate a worthwhile discussion process in conflict management. The research employs regression analyses and survey research approach. Both assertiveness and inclination to initiate were regressed against cultures of two countries (USA and Brazil) concerning perceived aptness of the process. The article introduces locus of control, Machiavelliasm, risk propensity and self-efficacy to measure personalities in the above mentioned countries. The research found that three personalities (risk propensity, self-efficacy, and Machiavelliasm) were the most correlated with initiation assertiveness. Besides, the findings indicated a significant interaction effect involving risk propensity and culture in both countries. One of the main limitations of the research is that it studies only two countries, USA, and Brazil which impairs both authenticity and reliability of the findings.

The study is valuable as it provides replica for comprehending in a profound manner the dynamism of the initiation process in solving conflicts which have not researched by many in their research works studies. The study brings on board a deep understanding on matters regarding the influence of culture and personality in the negotiation process and how they can affect the initiation behavior. The author of the article argues that the interpersonal processes such as problem-solving and team development which are some of the early stages in negotiation tend to play a significant part regarding on how the succeeding steps will unfold. In addition, they play significant roles in shaping the nature of the outcome as well. In this regard, the entire process of negotiation is crippled when some of the key players fail in the initiation process. The author suggests that a better Comprehension of the factors which tends to influence the initiation process can improve satisfaction levels of the involved parties.

Similarities and Contrasts

Both articles focus on conflict management through discussion. They focus on strategies that are necessary to achieve a constructive conflict which forms the basis of the outcome of the negotiation process. The two authors claim that the result of the process is likely to benefit both parties if only a better understanding of the protagonist’s ideas through listening is encouraged. Volkema & Flek (2012) asserts that a mutual benefit outcome largely depends on the initiation process. Similarly, Tjosvold, Weng and Chen (2014) argue that a constructive conflict is achieved through listening and understanding to the protagonist’s point of view and finally integrating them into the negotiation process.

On the contrary, there exist some differences between the two articles. Tjosvold, Weng & Chen (2014), asserts that managers should initiate alternative ways of dealing with conflict and select the best that suits their situation. According to Tjosvold, Weng and Chen (2014), an open-minded discussion is the best approach as it forms the basis of constructive conflict through listening and understanding the protagonist’s point of view. While Volkem & Flek (2012), argues that the outcome of the negotiation entirely depends on the initiation process which mostly depends on personalities such as self-efficacy and culture.


To conclude, since conflicts are inevitable within or outside organizations, proper methods of resolving them in a constructive manner are important. In this regard, teamwork is incredibly useful and unavoidable in efforts to promote open discussions on diverse perspectives and integrate them into viable solutions to foster constructive mutual coexistence. As such, there is a need to employ constructive and most effective theories to encourage appropriate and effective negotiation processes in pursuit of achieving constructive conflict. On the other hand, it is imperative to better understanding during the initiation process of the negotiation to enhance satisfaction of the involved parties.


Tjosvold, D., Wong, A.S. and Feng Chen, N.Y., 2014. Constructively Managing Conflicts In Organizations. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav. 1(1), pp.545-568.Link; file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/tjosvold-2014-545-568.pdf

Volkema, R.J. and Fleck, D., 2012. Understanding Propensity To Initiate Negotiations: An Examination Of The Effects Of Culture And Personality. International Journal of Conflict Management, 23(3), pp.266-289.Link;