Organisational Behaviour Essay Example
Question 1B: Motivation Issues
Motivation plays an important role in the workplace as it determines to a large extent the attitude with which an employee perceives work. It is upon the employer to ensure that their employees have a positive mental attitude while executing the various duties allocated to them because this is the basis of productivity and desirable quality. This attitude is reinforced by the deliberate efforts by the management to motivate employees. In this regard, the motivation given to employees is what distinguishes excellent enterprises from average and below average enterprises. The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs outlines the needs and wants that are universally experienced by everyone from every corner of the world (Udechukwu, 69-82). These needs range from the ones that are required for survival to those that are not necessarily vital for one’s survival. The need to satisfy the various needs as outlined in the hierarchy is what motivates one to work hard.
Herzberg’s theory of motivation gives a two-way approach to the issue of motivation at the work place. Employees are not only motivated by the urge to meet the needs in their lives. The presence or absence of certain factors that are considered unpleasant by the employees could come in the way for the administration as far as motivation is concerned. The hygiene factors comprise the general work environment at the work place. It could be the relationship among the employees or their relationship with the administration. Additionally, these factors form the attitude of the employees towards work. Consequently, in order for motivation to be effected, the environment should be one that fosters favourable working environments such as clear communication channels, which would assure employees that their grievances, if any, get to the right authorities. The absence of these factors causes job dissatisfaction and consequently under-motivated employees (Udechukwu, 73-75). Motivator factors, on the other hand play the role of creating individual contact between the employees and the administration. This is done through various measures by the administration such as appraisals and opportunities for personal growth.
Adam’s Equity theory explains motivation from a different point of view different from Maslow’s and Herzberg’s theories. In his account, Adam makes a clear distinction between the need to satisfy basic needs and achieving favourable working conditions at the workplace. According to this theory, employees seek to establish a common ground for the rewarding criteria adopted by the administration. The input of an employee is weighed in relation to the output and a comparison with others who contribute the same input is done. This theory makes it clear that all employees that contribute equally should in turn be rewarded equally (Ahmad, 722-725). Schultz, the owner of Starbucks applied this theory by allowing casual workers who worked more than twenty hours a week to access health benefits provided by the company. This way, the casual employees felt motivated as their input was rewarded in equal measure with those who were permanently employees.
Effectiveness at the workplace is dependent on the management’s ability to implement motivation strategies. For instance, it is imperative for the administration to come to grips with the fact that employees have needs which motivate them to work hard in a bid to satisfy them. In this regard, employers in the workplace ought to make their employees’ struggle to make ends meet bearable by implementing programs such as health insurance cover among other benefits. The management of motivation at the workplace results in high profits for the business. The Herzberg’s theory is of great contribution in the sense that it provides the factors that would either cause satisfaction or dissatisfaction at the workplace. Adam’s Equity theory, on the other hand brings into the picture the factor of fairness and equity at the workplace by comparing the balance of effort and reward. The level of motivation depends on the employee’s perception of equity, which is formed through a comparison with a referent group.
Question 2b: Attribution Theory
Organizational behaviour is generally how organizations go about their conventional activities. It is basically how organizations spend their revenue, hire staff, and make crucial decisions and the methods of production they employ. The goals of an organization are formed in order to have a reference point from which the organization will be gauging its performance. These goals are characterized by clarity and precision, which goes hand in hand with time consciousness. Attribution theory is the theory that seeks to explain why people behave or act the way they do. In the context of the workplace, the attribution theory is used to explain why some employees are more motivated than others even when they are in the same rank or receive the same level of motivation. These behaviours are influenced by factors that are broadly categorized into situational and dispositional factors. These factors are based on the fact that people’s perceptions are formed as a result of past experiences.
Situational factors are the external considerations that influence the behaviour or reaction a person has in response to an occurrence (Eccles and Wigfield, 115). These external factors could be based on the person’s previous experiences or their perception formed spontaneously as a result of the occurrence. However, the latter is less likely due to the fact that most often than not, the reactions that a person would exhibit is a collection of their past experiences. It is important to note that situational factors are dependent on the nature of the situation. For instance, in the case of a situation in which one is criticized for poor performance or something similar to that, chances are that the person will base locate the cause of his failure or poor performance to an external factor, in which case he will be avoiding retribution. This is the natural reaction typical of any person. Hence, there is the need to establish a common ground that incorporates cause and effect measures in an effort to take advantage of situational factors that influence a person’s behaviour.
Dispositional factors are the opposite of situational factors. Whereas situational factors involve the external conditions, dispositional factors are those internal factors that influence a person’s behaviour. A good example of a dispositional factor is the case of performance appraisal or a promotion at the work place. The individual is likely to link the promotion to his internal abilities such as intelligence, hard work, competence and determination. Just like it is typical for a person to attribute failure and poor performance to an external factor, it is also characteristic of people to attribute positive phenomena to their internal capabilities. However, it is imperative to bear in mind that both situational and dispositional factors are only applicable to those people whose self esteem is above average. This is because, for those people who have esteem issue, it is characteristic of them to attribute failure to their incapacitation and success to luck or an organization’s resolve to overlook their failures.
The attribution theory is an important tool especially when it comes to managing goal oriented organizational behaviour. First, the theory provide the organization with a drawing board to which it will be getting back to whenever there is a stagnation in the management’s ability to assess the behaviour of individuals in its workforce. Secondly, this theory comes in handy in the situation where the organization is looking into the idea of implementing motivation strategies in a particular course of action within the organization. The goals of the organization are likely to be achieved in a cost effective manner. This is because according to the theory, behavioural chances in the workforce can be monitored since every action or behaviour is attributed to either an external or an internal factor. The organization will be in a position to identify an appropriate motivation strategy to avoid incurring unnecessary expenses in the efforts of achieving the organization’s goals (Aslami, 262-265).
Question 3b: Organizational Change
Analyzing the Organization and its need for change
An analysis in the organization serves to establish the loopholes in the structural setup of the organization that would derail its performance in the future. The analysis aligns the strengths against weaknesses as well as opportunities against threats. This way, it is possible for the organization to ascertain the actual need for change. British Airways needed to address the competition from the American airlines.
Create a shared vision and common direction
This step follows soon after the need for change has been identified. The management ought to bring the rest if the workforce to the knowledge of where the organization is heading. The vision of the organization not only speeds up the pace at which change will take place but also improves the effectiveness with which the workforce conceives the goals and objectives of the organization.
Separate from the past
The management at British Airways made it clear to its members of staff that change was the only way to disengage from the unfair competition from the American Airlines. The company’s past was characterised by poor customer service coupled with a workforce that is less collaborative, something that provided the rivals with a loophole. In order to reverse the trends, the company needed to separate from this past and launch a new set of strategies.
Create a sense of urgency
According to Edwards (269-288), change is effected faster when a sense of urgency is created. This is so because of the anxiety that is associated with the prospect of wanting to beat deadlines. When it is so urgent to implement change in an organization, the necessary resources will be brought together as well as genuine dedication from workforce to make the changes take effect.
Develop a strong leader role
The complication and sophistication related with change necessitate the need for guidance in the process. This guidance is well offered by the management, which is knowledgeable enough about the dynamics and logistics of implementing the change. The management at the Brutish Airways played a strong leadership role by offering guidance to the various agents of change in the organization.
Line up line up political sponsorship
The success of change is determined by who supports it and of course the scope that is expected to be covered as a result of the implementation of change in the organization. The support of the European government on the implementation of change in the British Airways played an important role in effecting the desired change in the organization.
Craft an implementation plan
This is a reflection of the company’s mission and vision statement. It is a detailed framework of how the company is going to go about the change process. The management at British Airways broke down the company’s vision into actual steps and procedures that were to be followed in the process of transforming the organization into one that focused not only on the instincts of making profits but also on the welfare of its employees.
Develop enabling structures and reinforcements
Change is not an overnight process. As such, it is necessary for the organization with the intention of implementing change to put in place concrete reinforcements in the various aspects that constitute the overall structure to be changed. The British Airways company understood that change could not be experienced simply by expressing the interest but it needed extra efforts. In this regard, the company initiated changes in the various aspects of its operations such as hiring practices (Goodstein and Burke, 5-17).
Communicate, involve people and be honest
Effective change calls for communication between the agents of change and the management team. The communication serves to inform the agents of change the essence of change and the implications it would have in the organization as well as the motives behind the implementation of change. Honesty in the communication with members of staff is equally important.
Monitor, refine and Institutionalize change
The change process is characterized by alterations and modification. An important factor to be considered is the need to monitor the process in order to minimize the instances of midcourse calibrations which occur in the change process. British Airways made unprecedented efforts to ensure that the transformation of the organization was uninterrupted.
Ahmad, Kamarul Zaman Bin. «Group Size as a Moderator of the Effect of Equity Sensitivity on Employee Job Satisfaction.» International Journal of Management 28.3 (2011): 716-29.
Aslami, Wajma. «Organizational Behaviour: Managing and Leading Organizations.» Journal of Business Studies Quarterly 5.2 (2013): 262-5.
Eccles, Jacquelynne S., and Allan Wigfield. «Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.» Annual review of psychology 53.1 (2002): 109-132.
Edwards, Mark G. «The Integral Holon: A Holonomic Approach to Organisational Change and Transformation.» Journal of Organizational Change Management 18.3 (2005): 269-88.
Goodstein, Leonard D., and W. Warner Burke. «Creating successful organization change.» Organizational Dynamics 19.4 (1991): 5-17.
Udechukwu, Ikwukananne I., D.B.A. «Correctional Officer Turnover: Of Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy and Herzberg’s Motivation Theory.» Public Personnel Management 38.2 (2009): 69-82.
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