Online Test Essay Example

  • Category:
  • Document type:
    Math Problem
  • Level:
  • Page:
  • Words:

Question 1: In what ways did industrialisation transform work and society?

Industrialisation significantly transformed work and society in a number of ways. Firstly, it led to technological development and advancements. Development of technology in turn led to inventions that transformed the way in which goods were produced. These inventions enabled the mass production of goods. For example, as a result of industrialisation machines such as the power loom and cotton gin made it possible to produce products in mass quantities (Hopkins, 2013).

Secondly, industralisation enhanced urbanisation. As many cities became cites for manufacturing industries, more people moved from rural areas to the cities in search for employment opportunities. Consequently, cities grew and overcrowding begun to occur coupled with problems such as high crime rates, environmental problems and poverty. In addition to this, industrialisation brought changes in social structures. As a result of the development of commerce and industry, the middle class emerged. This class comprised of people working as bankers, managers, lawyers, doctors, shopkeepers, mines and merchants among others. Another population of wealthy elite also emerged. This population comprised of factory and land owners who controlled large portion of wealth. People begun to feel that they were selfish, materialistic and smug. The rural labourers, subsistence farmers, miners and ordinary factory workers were considered as the lower class. They felt that the wealthy elite and the middle class discriminated against them economically, socially and politically (Hopkins, 2013).


Hopkins, E.( 2013). Industralisation and Society: A Social History, 1830-1951. London: Routledge.

Question 2: What does Giddens mean by ‘plastic’ sexuality and ‘pure’ relationships?

According to Giddens (1992) plastic sexuality is a high level of self-awareness regarding sexuality that is freed from its inherent relation to reproduction. It is more or less a sexual expression emancipated from the natural need of reproduction. Giddens further observes that plastic sexuality is an emotional and sexual emancipation that is neutral in regards to its sexual orientation. It is realised when one has broken the bounds of traditional expectations and is now free to become whetever they wish to become

On the other hand, Giddens (1992) considers pure relationships as a relationship that upholds sexual and emotional equality is volatile in terms of its connotations for the existing power relations.


Giddens, A. (1992).The Transformation of Intimacy: Sexuality, Love and Eroticism in Modern Societies. New York :Polity Press

Question 3: What is individualisation? Give a definition and an example. What positives and negatives have been associated with it?

Individualisation can be described as a process in which an individual frees or breaks the bonds of close groups and becomes dependent on anonymous or distant social forces. It marks a shift from socially imposed models of lifestyle and ethics to a self-designed model of lifestyle and beliefs. A good example of individualisation is evident in modern society especially among immigrants living in metropolitan areas. After years of living in the city they may not completely identify with the culture or norms of their home of origin. Living in a different for years enables them to adopt new worldview and lifestyle (Sterkens , 2001).

Individualisation enables people to continuously make appraisals on why they take certain actions or why they enter into certain relations. In essence, it coincides with rationalism thus can lead to better decision making. However, it may also cause one to detach or complete disregard accepted societal norms and values that promote peace and order (Sterkens , 2001).


Sterkens , C. (2001). Interreligious Learning: The problem of interreligious dialogue in primary education. New York: Brill.

Question 4 What does Ritzer mean by ‘ Mcdonaldisation’? Is the modern world becoming increasingly McDonalised?

According to Ritzer (2009), “Mcdonaldisation” is a sociological phenomenon manifested when a society gradually begins to adopt the characteristics of a fast food restaurant mainly marked by rationalization. In essence, Mcdonaldisation refers to a process of rationalisation characterised by a shift from traditional modes of thinking to scientific or rational modes of thought. Ritzer further observes that, Mcdonaldisation is marked by logical sequencing of procedures that are completed the same way every time in order to generate the desired outcome. This concept has four key dimensions namely; efficiency, calculability, control and predictability. With the aid of technology the world is continually being McDonalised. For instance, many workplaces have put in place systems that have logically sequenced operations in an efficient, predictable and controllable manner (Ritzer, 2009).


Ritzer, G. (2009). The McDonaldization of Society. Los Angeles: Pine Forge Press.