Nutrition Principles ( major assignment)

Question 7.

A lady who is not pregnant waist circumference ought not be more than 35 inches. Waist circumference can be utilized as a screening apparatus however is not indicative of the body heftiness or wellbeing of a person. A trained healthcare provider ought to perform proper wellbeing appraisals so as to assess an individual’s wellbeing status and dangers.


Table 1 Energy Cost for Various Activities

Nutrition Principles ( major assignment)

Table 2 Summary Table(to be completed using data from page 10 and energy cost values above)

Energy cost for activities




(insert figure from the above Table 1)


Total minutes spent X Energy cost per min


90 X 0.032=2.88(kj/kg)

50 X 0.076= 3.8 (Kj/kg)


110 X0.260= 28.6(kj/kg)

(i) Total kJ/kg/24 hours (add rows a to f)

(ii) Actual body weight

Total energy for muscular activity (i multiplied by ii)



a. 10% of total energy intake from 24 hour food record:

(page 14)

Explain what is meant by diet induced thermogenesis?

DIT, is the procedure of vitality generation in the body brought about straightforwardly by the metabolizing of nourishment expended. Dietary thermogenesis is affected by components identifying with the piece of the sustenance and the physical condition of the person. Elements identifying with the sustenance you eat could impact their related rate of dietary thermogenesis, specifically their vitality substance, or calories, and macronutrient sythesis.______________________________________________________________________________



(Remember to include units)

Energy used for basal metabolism (BMR) ______32.6______ (page 9)

Energy used for muscular activity __65.5__________ (page 11)

Energy spent on digestion and ____34.1________ (above)

metabolism of food (DIT)

Total energy spent in 24 hours


ie. BMR Energy Expenditure x 100

Total Energy Expended

665 + (9.6 X 69) + (1.8 x 178) – (4.7 x 27)            = 1520.9 calories/ day 

% BMR of total energy expenditure = 1520.9____________ x 100

= _152090___________ %

What is the expected percentage contribution of BMR to overall energy expenditure? Discuss the factors that can effect an individuals BMR.

Body Size. A normally enormous body implies more cells to keep up which requires more calories; in this manner, bigger individuals have a tendency to have an elevated capacity to burn calories.

• Weight Gain. This rates up the digestion system as every development requires the compression of more muscle to move the mass, regardless of the fact that the weight picked up is fat. However fat is not metabolically dynamic, so the metabolic rate may be higher amid development.

• Body Composition. Body organization is the contrast between aggregate incline weight contrasted with fat weight. A higher rate of incline body weight brings about a high metabolic rate contrasted and people of the same weight with a higher fat rate. An incline individual blazes numerous a larger number of calories than an overweight individual very still since incline body weight is metabolically dynamic.

Discuss the factors that you feel effect your individual BMR.

• Gender. Men normally have a higher level of incline muscle and research proposes this is chiefly because of the male sex hormones bringing about the distinction in body size and arrangement.

• Age. Following 30 years old there is normally a progressive decrease in incline body weight and an expansion in fat weight. This is basically because of hormonal changes and will prompt a bringing down of the digestion system. General activity in adulthood will back this procedure off and keep digestion system up.


a. Record food intake for one day on sheet provided (page 14). This must be done on the same day as record of energy expenditure,

i. List all foods and beverages consumed at or between meals. Include any vitamin-mineral supplement. Do not forget such items as gravy, jam, butter, margarine, sauces, salad dressings, nuts, sugar and milk on cereals or in beverages. List foods as soon after eating as possible – do not rely on your memory. Do not change your usual diet in any way.

List separately the different foods that compose one dietary mixed item, eg ham sandwich – list wholegrain roll or white sliced bread, ham, butter, mayonnaise, mustard, lettuce, etc.

Provide additional descriptive information by specifying whether the item is raw or cooked and how it was prepared and brand. This information is needed to properly identify food for calculations.

ii. Express amounts of food as definitely and accurately as possible. Indicate serving sizes by weight (ie for one day you must either weigh everything you eat and drink or estimate the amount or read packaging labels for amounts. You can also estimate by household measures where necessary).

iii. Classify the day’s dietary intake using the five core food groups from the Australian Dietary Guidelines.

iv. Mixed dishes should be classified under the group to which they make the major contribution or the mixed dish can be provided into the component parts for classification, eg; ham sandwich is divided into ham (meat and meat alternatives), bread (breads and cereals), lettuce (vegetables and legumes) and butter (extras).

Day 1:

Time of Meal or Snack

Type of Food or Beverage Offered

Amount Eaten

Method of Preparation or Brand


(e.g. amount of food served, too tired to eat)


Honey Nut Cheerios

On cereal

AM Snack

Animal Crackers


Apple juice

Allen’s pure apple juice-canned


Grilled cheese sandwich

Whole wheat bread


No crusts

Cheese slice

Kraft slices

Butter on bread

Yogurt – strawberry

PM Snack

Granola bar

1 bar – 35 g

Quaker Chewy, Trail Mix – tropical fruit

Ate half of it


Chicken fingers

President’s Choice

French fries

McCain regular

For dipping

½ medium

Raw, cut in sticks

Evening Snack

Ice cream

Chocolate Nestle

b. Using the diet analysis software disk provided with the Understanding Nutrition text or other diet analysis software or food composition tables from the back of Understanding Nutrition text book (page 813-817 W&R) or the FSANZ booklet : “Nutritional Values of Australian Foods”: calculate your daily intake of protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre, alcohol (in grams), energy (kcal, multiply by 4.2 for kJ), calcium (mg), iron (mg), etc. Use the food record analysis form provided (page 15, 16) in the assignment.

The % Daily Value mirrors the measure of a supplement in one serving of sustenance contrasted with the sum suggested for a 2,000-kilocalorie diet. For instance, if a sustenance name records 20% DV for immersed fat, it implies that one serving of this nourishment contains 20% of the Daily Value for soaked fat. Since the DV for immersed fat is 20 grams (for a 2,000-kilocalorie eat less), this sustenance would have 4 grams of soaked fat per serving (20% of 20 g = 4 g).

c. Identify from the list of foods you consumed and recorded, the three foods that supplied the most of each nutrient listed on page 17 (refer to your computer analysis). Indicate your total daily intake of these nutrients and compare with the Nutrient Reference Values (Appendix 1).

The Estimated Energy Requirement for Maintenance (EERM, or genuine vitality necessity) is the dietary vitality allow that is anticipated to keep up vitality equalization (in addition to additional requirements for pregnancy, lactation and development) in solid people or gatherings of people at current levels of body size and level of physical movement. The Desirable Estimated Energy Requirement (DEER, or vitality reference quality) is the dietary vitality allow that is anticipated to keep up vitality parity (in addition to additional requirements for pregnancy, lactation and development) in solid people or gatherings of people of a characterized sexual orientation, age, weight, stature and level of physical action predictable with great wellbeing and/or improvement.


Record of Food Intake for One Day



Grilled cheese sandwich

Saturated fat

Whole wheat bread

Cheese slice

Butter on bread


Yogurt – strawberry

Chicken fingers

French fries

½ medium

Ice cream

Saturated fat

Apple juice

(Note: Refer to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating to determine which core food group each food you consumed belongs to ie. Breads and Cereals, Vegetables and legumes, Fruit, Dairy and dairy alternatives, Meat and meat alternatives, Extras)



Transfer information from your dietary analysis into this table FOOD RECORD ANALYSIS FORM – 2

Food item

Sodium (mg)

Potassium (mg)

Folate (ug)

Vitamin C (mg)

Fibre (g)

Alcohol (g)

Grilled cheese sandwich

Whole wheat bread

Cheese slice

Butter on bread

Yogurt – strawberry

Chicken fingers

French fries

Ice cream

Apple juice

Transfer information from your dietary analysis into this table FOOD RECORD ANALYSIS FORM – 2


Food item

Sodium (mg)

Potassium (mg)

Folate (ug)

Vitamin C (mg)

Fibre (g)

Alcohol (g)

Grilled cheese sandwich

Whole wheat bread

Cheese slice

Butter on bread

Yogurt – strawberry

Chicken fingers

French fries

Ice cream

Apple juice


In the Table below name the three foods that contribute the most to the nutrients listed below. Refer back to page 15 and 16 for your daily intake for each nutrient. Recommended values must be obtained from Nutrient Reference Values (NRV’s) for your age and gender group (Appendix 1). Remember to include units where appropriate.


Daily Intake

(include units)

Recommended values RDI or AI (include units)

Vitamin C

Vitamin D

Saturated fat

Note: For saturated fat, Show calculations for recommended amount in (g) and as a % total energy

Percentage of energy derived from each of the energy nutrients.

a. Complete the following table from values obtained from your own dietary analysis

Total g Carbohydrate___20___ x 17 = ____3.4__ kJ ____340_ % of total E

Total g Protein 0.463______ x 17 = ___7.871___ kJ ___787.1___ % of total E

Total g Fat ____0.464__ x 37 = _17.168_____ kJ ___1716.7___ % of total E

Total g Alcohol ____0.467__ x 29 = __13.54____ kJ __1354.3____ % of total E

Total Energy 4197.6______ kJ

b. Compare your % energy from fat, protein and carbohydrate intakes with those recommended as a percentage of total energy intake.

The normal day by day sugar admission for a woman(1) ought to be between 225-300 grams and 300-375 grams for men(2) (expecting approx. 45-65% of aggregate calories from sugars); the normal fat gram requirement for women(1) is 40-65 grams and 65-95 grams for men(2) (expecting approx. 20-35% of aggregate calories from fats); protein admission ought to be around 50-100 grams for women(1) and roughly 60-150 grams for men(2) (expecting approx. 10-20% of aggregate calories from protein). Fiber admission ought to be between 25-40 grams every day- — higher sums >25 grams are prescribed for higher caloric needs and more established people.

Complete the following table.


% Energy (Personal)



c. Comment about the adequacy and breakdown of your energy intake compared with the recommended ranges. How could your diet be improved in terms of macronutrient balance?


Equalization your admission of protein, starches, and fats, macronutrients within acceptable ranges can help you meet your calorie requirement


a. Daily Energy Intake:

Total energy ____65__________ kJ

(from page 14)

b. Daily Energy Output:

Total Estimated Energy Expenditure ___30___________ kJ

(from page 11)

c. Suggest reasons for any discrepancy between the values for energy intake and energy output. Discuss these results in consideration of your current weight.

Body weight inside the extent craved for good wellbeing (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2) while keeping up sufficient levels of physical action is the basic pointer of ampleness of vitality admission. Since any vitality consumption over the assessed necessity is liable to bring about weight pick up and expanded dismalness, a UL can’t be ascertained for dietary vitality



In your answers for the following questions use practical food examples and relate your answers back to your own diet. Remember to include references were appropriate. (6 marks each = 42 marks

a. What are the current recommendations for total fat and saturated fat intake. According to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs), how does your saturated fat intake rate? What are the health implications of consuming too much saturated fat.

 Devour under 10 percent of calories from immersed unsaturated fats and under 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans unsaturated fat utilization as low as could reasonably be expected.

• Keep absolute fat admission between 20 to 35 percent of calories, with most fats originating from wellsprings of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated unsaturated fats, for example, fish, nuts, and vegetable oils.

• When selecting and planning meat, poultry, dry beans, and drain or drain items, settle on decisions that are incline, low-fat, or sans fat.

• Limit admission of fats and oils high in immersed and/or trans unsaturated fats, and pick items low in such fats and oils

b. According to the NRV’s, how does your fibre intake rate? Discuss in relation to how this impacts health.

Satisfactory dietary fiber is key for legitimate working of the gut and has likewise been identified with danger lessening for various ceaseless sicknesses including coronary illness, certain malignancies and diabetes

c. Discuss the sources of iron containing foods that you consume and how your daily intake compares to the NRVs. How can iron absorption be improved?

Iron assimilation is ideal (15-18%) from nourishments that contain haem iron. Red meat, fish and poultry are the best wellsprings of haem iron. Iron retention from sustenances that contain non-haem iron is much lower (<5%). Non-haem iron is overwhelmingly found in plant nourishments, for example, oats, vegetables, vegetables and nuts. The assimilation of non-haem iron can be enhanced by joining wellsprings of haem iron with non-haem iron. Counting vitamin C-rich sustenances with dinners (e.g. squeeze or natural product with breakfast, capsicum in a panfry, plate of mixed greens or organic product with a sandwich) additionally upgrades assimilation of non-haem iron.

d. Discuss your intake of calcium and Vitamin D and how this compares to the NRVs. What is the significance of calcium and Vitamin D in relation to how these two nutrients impact your health? Include detail on why calcium and Vitamin D intake is important at this stage in your life.

The IOM report expresses that there is no extra medical advantage connected with vitamin D or calcium admissions over the level of the new Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The aggregate supplement admission ought to stay beneath the level of the new Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) to maintain a strategic distance from conceivable unfriendly impacts.

e. Discuss the sources of folate containing foods that you consume and how your daily intake compares to the NRVs. Discuss in relation to how this impacts health.

Folate capacities as a coenzyme in single-carbon moves in the digestion system of nucleotides and amino acids. It is vital for the development of thymidylate (TMP) for DNA amalgamation, so that without folate, living cells can’t separate. The requirement for folate is higher when cell turnover is expanded, for example, in fetal improvement. The term dietary folate counterparts (DFE) have been utilized to suit the changing bioavailabilities. High-folate sustenances incorporate green verdant vegetables, organic products, and vegetables)

1 µg dietary folate equal (DFE) = 1 µg nourishment folate

= 0.5 µg folic corrosive on a vacant stomach

= 0.6 µg folic corrosive with dinners or as invigorated nourishments

f. Discuss your sodium intake relative to the recommendations in the NRVs. How could you decrease your sodium intake? What are the health implications associated with a high sodium intake.

• Sodium is required by the body to direct liquid levels, yet there is for the most part all that could possibly be needed dietary sodium in a characteristic eating routine with no additional salt.

• The normal Australian eats around eight or nine times more sodium (salt) than is required for good wellbeing.

• A slim down high in sodium has been connected to hypertension

.g. In regards to the recommendations of the Australian Dietary Guidelines (2013), discuss how well your food intake for the day compares with each of the 5 Guidelines (ensure you address each of the 6 points of Guideline 2, and the 4 subsections of Guideline 3).

Note: The space provided is not indicative of the length of response.

Australian Dietary Guidelines

Personal Intake Comparison

Guideline 1

To achieve and maintain a healthy weight, be physically active and choose amounts of nutritious food and drinks to meet your energy needs.

  • Children and teenagers ought to eat adequate nutritious nourishments to develop and grow regularly. They ought to be physically dynamic consistently and their development ought to be checked frequently.

• Older individuals ought to eat nutritious sustenance’s and keep physically dynamic to keep up muscle quality and a sound weight.

Guideline 2

Enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods from these five food groups every day:

  1. Plenty of vegetables of different types and colours, and legumes/beans

  2. Grain (cereal) foods, mostly wholegrain and/or high cereal fibre varieties, such as breads, cereals, rice, pasta, noodles, polenta, couscous, oats, quinoa and barley

  3. Lean meats and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds, and legumes/beans

  4. Milk, yoghurt, cheese, and/or their alternatives, mostly reduced fat

  5. And drink plenty of water

1. • Children and young people should eat sufficient nutritious sustenances to create and become consistently. They should be physically rapid reliably and their improvement should be checked much of the time.

• Older people should eat nutritious sustenances and keep physically element to keep up muscle quality and a sound weight.

2. It bodes well that on the off chance that you need to augment the wellbeing impacts, then concentrate on the organic product with the best measure of fiber, vitamins and minerals contrasted with the sugar and calorie content. It is likewise a smart thought to switch things up and eat an assortment of organic products, in light of the fact that distinctive natural products contain diverse supplements.

3. This nutrition class ought to frame the principle wellspring of kilojoules (vitality) in the eating routine. Grains are a key part of a solid eating routine, giving supplements and vitality

4. This gathering of sustenances is rich in protein and is additionally a decent wellspring of different supplements, for example, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamins (particularly some B bunch vitamins).

5. Milk, yogurt and cheddar are rich wellsprings of calcium and different minerals, protein and vitamins. Choices incorporate calcium-braced soy and rice milks.

On the off chance that you are underweight, it is particularly imperative that you eat 3–4 serves of sustenances from this gathering each day.

6. It is generally prescribed to drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water every day (the 8×8 guideline). Despite the fact that there is little science behind this particular guideline, staying hydrated is essential.

Guideline 3

Limit intake of foods containing saturated fat, added salt, added sugars and alcohol.

  1. Limit intake of foods high in saturated fat such as many biscuits, cakes, pastries, pies, processed meats, commercial burgers, pizza,
    fried foods, potato chips, crisps and other savoury snacks.

  • Replace high fat foods which contain predominantly saturated fats such as butter, cream, cooking, margarine, coconut and palm oil with foods which contain predominantly polyunsaturated & monounsaturated fats such as oils, spreads, nut butters/pastes & avocado.

  • Low fat diets are not suitable for children under the age of 2 years

  1. Limit intake of foods and drinks containing added salt.

  • Read labels to choose lower sodium options among similar foods.

  • Do not add salt to foods in cooking or at the table

  1. Limit intake of foods and drinks containing added sugars such as confectionary, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and cordials, fruit drinks, vitamin waters, energy and sports drinks.

  2. If you choose to drink alcohol, limit intake. For women who are pregnant, planning a pregnancy or breastfeeding, not drinking alcohol is the safest option.

a) It can help us deal with our weight better and lessen our danger of perpetual infections like coronary illness, stroke, Type 2 diabetes, a few malignancies and incessant kidney ailment.

b) Cutting down on sodium diminishes pulse in grown-ups and kids. This is especially imperative if your pulse is as of now too high. Diminishing admission of sodium may likewise lessen your danger of coronary illness and stroke.

c) If you eat or drink an excess of added sugar it can prompt wellbeing issues including tooth rot, corpulence, trouble controlling sort 2 diabetes, higher triglyceride levels, bring down high-thickness lipoprotein (HDL, likewise called «great») cholesterol levels, and coronary illness.

d) an excessive amount of liquor may expand your danger of wellbeing issues and harm your heart.

Guideline 4

Encourage, support and promote breastfeeding.

Babies who are bolstered breastmilk have a lower danger of:

• Gastrointestinal contaminations (e.g. looseness of the bowels and spewing)

• Atopic sickness (counting skin inflammation and asthma)

• Middle ear contaminations

• Urinary tract contaminations

• Respiratory contaminations

• Obesity in adolescence and later life

• Type 1 and 2 diabetes in adolescence or later life

• Some adolescence malignancies

• Sudden baby demise disorder (SIDS).

For the mother

Research demonstrates that breastfeeding has noteworthy medical advantages for moms.


• Assists the uterus to come back to its pre-pregnant state quicker

• Can help ladies to get in shape after child’s introduction to the world

• May diminish the danger of moms with gestational diabetes creating sort 2 diabetes

• Reduces the danger of ovarian tumor and pre-menopausal bosom disease

• May diminish the danger of osteoporosis.

Guideline 5

Care for your food; prepare and store it safely

It’s imperative to get ready sustenance securely to prevent hurtful microbes from spreading and developing. You can find a way to shield yourself and your family from the spread of destructive microscopic organisms.

Wash your hands

Your hands can without much of a stretch spread microscopic organisms around the kitchen and onto sustenance. This is the reason it’s essential to dependably wash your hands completely with cleanser and warm water at each of these circumstances:

• before beginning to plan nourishment

• after touching crude sustenance, for example, meat, poultry and vegetables

• after setting off to the latrine

• after touching the receptacle

• after touching pets

Bear in mind to dry your hands altogether too, in light of the fact that on the off chance that they are wet they will spread microscopic organisms all the more effortlessly