NURSING Essay Example

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Critical Thinking and Analysis Competence Domain

Generally competence refers to a combination of skills, knowledge, values and abilities that make possible effective performance in an area of profession. Critical thinking and analysis is a professional benchmark with which one does an appraisal of themselves and of others in terms of value of evidence and research for purposes of professional development (Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council 2008). It uses professional standards and ethics of practice to assess the performance of self and others. This is by undertaking regular self-evaluation of nursing practice. It recognizes the need for own care and participation in own professional development. It also contributes to learning experiences and professional development of others, summarised by reports of errors of judgement and immediate action to appropriate authority.

Role of Reflection in Developing Competence in Nursing Practice

To reflect on the subject, reflection in nursing involves intellectual and affective activities with which an individual actively and persistently considers and revisits past experiences, beliefs or any supposed knowledge forms in light of their support grounds. Reflection does not occur in all situations. Nevertheless, it fulfils several functions such as helping practitioners to make meaning of complex situations and enabling learning from experiences. Therefore, it surely complements critical thinking and analysis though tendency to reflect may vary. The process of reflection is thus a vitally supportive tool in nursing. According to Mann, Gordon and MacLeod (2007), it is mostly stimulated by complex clinical problems. The perception of these problems necessitates reflection and that is because it helps in simplifying challenging situations.

Knowledge, Feelings, Attitudes and Beliefs around Cultural Understanding and Competence

Evidently, medical concepts of health and well being focus on more than just an illness or disease in one’s body. Determinant of health are more than the functionality of the body organs and some of these determinants are a social as education, employment, connection with society and social networking. These have an impact to the whole community. Therefore increasing fundamental awareness of the importance of cultural heritage across borders shapes health care for self and others. Developing cultural competence helps to engage in a process of self reflection about one’s culture, how others view it and vice versa. Cultural understanding and competence is a continuous process that involves awareness, knowledge and sensitivity (Sue, 2001). Health care by way of cultural competence is realizable with resolution of intra-personal conflicts. This relates to the attitudes and beliefs that one holds towards and about other cultures. There is nothing to it other than just changing the world to a liveable place by love, care, cooperation with others, respect and support and positive thinking which drives it all. It helps to appreciate another person’s cultural fitness and awareness and a sign of well-being. With this, cultural differences stop mattering and the common goals take the centre stage to enhance harmony and peaceful coexistence, and professionalism guided by ethics.

Concept of Health

Health theories may state that it goes beyond personal health to the well being of the whole community but for sure, the responsibility of life actins remain with the self. Bettering oneself at every moment and with every chance gotten resultantly makes the world a better place. According to World Health Organization (2009), modern concepts of health embrace aboriginal health which. Aboriginal health has improved the knowledge of most nurses with the inclusive mode of perceiving health. Recommendable concepts of health posit that health is not just about the physical well-being of an individual but also includes their social, emotional and cultural well-being of the whole community. Most probably this is where the concept of cultural competence draws its basis, considering the positive impact that it has in the nursing profession. A healthy community allows every member the chance of achieving their full potential which translates to the whole community realizing its full potential. It is about everyone satisfying the society with the responsibilities accorded to them, including the nurses.

Determinants of Global Health and the Health of Australians, Considering Social

Justice Strategies

To give a good picture of the global health one needs to look at the health reports of the particular nations of the globe. Economical factors encompass advocacy for economical development of countries as a necessity to provide for underlying determinants of health. Prominent economical determinants include poverty reduction (Wagstaff 2002) and comprehensive primary health reduction. Economical and political determinants are not much covered. Social, economic and environmental factors are important determinants of health. Opinion is that medical practitioners should have an understanding of these as the major forces that influence the health of individuals and populations around the world. With improved knowledge and informed recognition, some of the social determinants of health are education, employment, income, housing, access to services amongst others. Social justice equates to fairness which relates to fair distribution of resources and fairness in opportunities afforded to all; basically a fair chance in life.

Health Care System

Health care systems are meant to provide appropriate management of care systems availed to individuals and communities. Proper health care systems promote safe health care environments. This means that as health services are provided to client, the system ensures a safe working environment for the medical professionals such as nurses. Apart from recognizing potential physical, psychological and cultural risks in the health care environment, the health care system takes steps to promote safety. Considering the Australian scenario, its health system can only be satisfactory if there is cultural competency in the linguistically diverse society. For this reason, the Australian health care system is organizational, systematic, sensitive, professional and individual. It is individual in the sense that all citizens contribute individually to healthy living. A balance of the health determinants discussed above is essential for a health system in the Australian culturally diverse society. The system has to recognize the benefits of cultural diversity. Its professional bit helps nurse and other medical professionals to give their best and achieve full potential, hence, cultural competence (Papadopoulos 2006).

Primary Health Care and Health Promotion

As learnt, this is basically about assisting clients and the community at large to achieve optimal health. These are the optimum scales within which an individual or a community can be medically cleared as healthy. It uses structured approaches in the process of assessment, administration and evaluation of health promotion and health education for individuals of a community. The performance criteria for this are recognition of the potentials of health promotion and education in nursing interventions, use of formal methods to assess needs of clients, identification of problems and formulation of goals, objectives and plans to solve them (World Health Organization 2009). Conclusively, the essence of primary health care and the beneficial potentials of health promotion are inevitably relevant and must be explored or implemented.


Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council. 2008. Code of Professional Ethics for Nurses in Australia. Kent Town: Nurses Board of South Australia.

Mann, K. Gordon, J. & MacLeod, A. 2007. Reflection and reflective practice in health professions education: A systematic review. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Papadopoulos, I. 2006. Trans-cultural health and social care: development of culturally competent practitioners, London: Elsevier.

Sue, D. W. 2001. Multidimensional facets of cultural competence. The Counselling Psychologist, 29.

Wagstaff, A. 2002. Poverty and health sector inequalities. Bulletin World Health Organization. 80.

World Health Organization, 2009. Nursing competency standards [online]. Available at: [Accessed 14 May 2013].