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Negotiation should be in this problem-solving .It is the key point Essay Example

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Why do States participate in International Organizations?

Introduction

Abbott and Snidal (1998, p.3) note that international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) Security Council, the World Bank, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the World Trade Organization (WTO) just to name but a few play an integral role of managing everyday interactions as well as more dramatic episodes such as international conflicts among states. As such, the primary role of states participation in such international organizations is to be in a position to negotiate and bargain with the objective of achieving their ends. International organizations create norms as well as understanding which guide the interaction of various states hence fostering international stability with regard to political, economic, technological, as well as social interaction. In addition, by participating in international organization, various states are able not only to create/establish and implement community values, but also enforce international commitments and agreements. Most states participate in international organization because they exhibit established structures and administrative support which render collective activities more efficiently (Klabbers, Peters and Ulfstein, 2009, p.50). The objective of this paper is to investigate the reasons behind the participation of states in international organizations.

Reasons for States’ Participation in International Organizations

Centralization

With regard to centralization, Abbot and Snidal, (1998, p.10) argue that international organizations play two crucial roles. First, states participate in international organizations because they not only support, but also facilitate direct interactions between states. Second, states participate in international organizations due to the fact that such organizations have the capacity to effectively manage substantive operations. International organizations support and facilitate the interaction between and among states by providing a stable forum for negotiation which in turn enhances iteration as well as reputational effects. The UN Security Council for instance, has the capacity to act on a very short notice thereby bringing a prompt response to sudden developments. In addition, international organizations embody the precise terms under which inter state interactions and cooperation are to occur. These abilities of international organizations shape the context within which states of the world interact (Abbot and Snidal, 1998, p.10).

Other than supporting and facilitating direct interaction between and among states, international organizations also do manage a wide variety of substantive operations. The World Bank for instance, other than financing massive development oriented projects in various states around the world, also engages in the following: providing training and technical assistance in a variety of disciplines; reviews investment proposals from various states; carries out extensive research and publications; and borrows on world capital and financial markets (Abbot and Snidal, 1998, p.12). States participate in international organizations because they lack the much needed operational organizational structures, budgets and autonomy to promote certain norms and practices relating to pooling of enormous activities, assets as well as risks; joint production; and norm elaboration and coordination. Using joint production as an example, states participate in international organizations such as European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) which provide a forum for joint subatomic research. The NATO military alliance promotes joint military tasks, exercises, machinery and teamwork for excellence (Abbot and Snidal, 1998, p.14).

Political Advantage

Various states participate in international organizations in order to acquire increased political influence within the international community. For smaller states and for developing states, participating in international organizations enable them to have a voice and be heard. International organizations such as the United Nations (UN) offer both developed and developing states a diplomatic approach to intergovernmental negotiation and interaction. As such, states participate in international organizations in order to benefit from international support systems put in place by the international organizations to facilitate negotiations and problem solving. In addition, states are able to influence the creation of international law by participating in international organizations. For example, Klabbers, Peters and Ulfstein (2009, p.50) reiterate that states were able to influence the outcome of treaty bodies such as the Climatic Change Convention and subsequently the Kyoto protocol as well as the Montreal Protocol by participating in the international convention (Shahjahan, 2012, p.369 to 379).

Participating in international organizations provide a sense of security to states. Larger international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and NATO give states that are its members some sort of security alliance. States participate in these international organizations because if another nation threatened them with military confrontation, they by virtue of being members of such organizations they would have support. For small states, participating in international organizations enabled their countries as well as its issues to be noticed by the international community. Leaders from such countries can also have a strong and significant influence on the international community. For instance, Kofi Annan had significant influence on the international community being the Secretary General of the United Nations in the 2000s. This was despite coming from a small African country, Ghana. This made Ghana together the socio-economic and political issues impacting on its development agenda to be recognized by the international community (Klabbers, Peters and Ulfstein (2009, p.50 to 52).

Economic Advantages

States participate in international organizations in order to achieve economic advantages. This is because many international organizations help in facilitating and facilitating free trade among its member states. In addition, participating in international organizations enhances close economic relations and ties. These close economic ties between member states of an international organization can result into better diplomatic association between and among member states of an international organization. In addition to the foregoing, states participate in international organizations in order to become less reliant on national industry or rather agriculture. For states which are dependent or rather specialized on either industry or agriculture, participating in international organizations to establish associations which enhance their productivity and market prospects with minima extra expenses (Klabbers, Peters and Ulfstein, 2009; Shahjahan, 2012, p.369 to 379).

International organizations such the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) provide loans to states which are its members. As such, states also participate in such international organizations in order to benefit from grants, interest free loans, as well as other forms of financial and economic help provided by such organizations. Countries such as Mexico (in the 1990s), significantly benefited from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as these bodies loaned out money during periods of economic and financial crises. Additionally, international organizations such the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) provide enormous assistance to member states seeking to abandon command economies and pursue capitalist markets. As a result, states participate in such international bodies with the objective of benefiting from such significant financial and economic assistance (Shahjahan, 2012, p.369 to 379).

Global Stability Advantage

Participating in international organization globalizes states. When states of the world become socialized globally, they learn to negotiate, work together and collaborate through socio-economic and political policies they become less hostile to their partners. By participating in international organizations, states gain t he ability to build or establish coalitions to deal with the states which act contrary to international laws and systems. The most contemporary example with regard to this is the attempt by the international community through in the international bodies to deter North Korea and Iran from building and subsequently using nuclear arms. In essence, international organizations provide states with system through which to act and behave positively. States which fail to observe such requirements of positive behaviour with regard to the international system, risk being removed or their membership being withdrawn from the international organizations which help them both politically and economically (Simonelli, 2007, p.43; Page, 2003).

Independence

Many states lack the capacity and the ability to perform some functions independently. Some of the functions conducted by international organizations require more substantive levels of independence. As such, states participate in international organizations because such organizations are independent and neutral actors who are capable of transforming the relationship between and among various states. In addition, international organizations can effectively promote efficiency and enhance the legitimacy of both individual and collective actions and negotiations among states. States participate in international organizations because they proactively promote and encourage interstate cooperation (Abbot and Snidal, 1998, p.17). International organizations also exhibit independence in the management of substantive operations such as laundering, environmental protection, human rights advocacy, education, as well as poverty eradication. Most states join and participate in international organizations in order to enhance their capacity and ability to address these challenges of development (Volgy et al., 2008).

Conclusion

The objective of this paper was to investigate the reasons behind the participation of states in international organizations. This paper has comprehensively discussed significance of international organizations to various states around the world. Most states lack the capacity to undertake the various functions undertaken by international organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the United Nations (UN), NATO, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), UNICEF, UNEP, UNDP, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the World Trade Organization (WTO) just to name but a few. As such, states join and participate in international organizations because of the benefits and the support they receive by being affiliated to such organizations. Some of these benefits have been discussed in this paper and include: centralization benefits, political advantages, economic advantages, global stability advantage, as well as the independence and neutrality associated with such organizations. Without these international organizations the world would be chaotic and highly insecure as there would be lack of order.

Bibliography

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