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NОISЕ СОNTRОL STRАTЕGIЕS АRОUND АIRРОRTS 2 Essay Example

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Noise Соntrоl Strаtеgiеs Аrоund Аirроrts 2

Introduction

In the airports, noise is very common and has great impact to the airport surroundings. The airport nose also leads to health effects to the people around, such as hypertension, hearing loss, sleep disturbance and mental health. To prevent such cases, the airports try to reduce the noise through different noise control strategies. After the measurement of the particular noise and quantification of its effects and impacts, the responsible personnel work towards its mitigation. This paper seeks to identify various strategies to mitigate the menace of noise around airports. The paper discusses different strategies referring to some real-life examples.

Reduction of the aviation noise is a continuous thing because the aviation noise is experienced from time to time and from different sources (Kendall-Tamiami, 2009). Noise mitigation practices are improved regularly by the airlines industry for improved service provision. Noise management is conducted by first; identifying the noise problem and then working towards its reduction. The following are some of the noise mitigation strategies applied around the airports.

Technological improvements

According to the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), elimination of noise in the airports is supposed to begin from the source of the particular noise (FAA 2016). The ICAO provides a noise certification standards process to be certain that there is the incorporation of the currently updated noise reduction technology in the aircraft design. This is where the aircraft is required to prove that the maximum noise level is not beyond the appropriate levels for the certification to be issued. This process also ensures that the airports are capable of incentivizing the uphold of the aircraft that has the most recent accessible noise mitigation technology using the noise-based landing fee. The jet aircrafts are able to reduce the noise emission by over 90%, as identified in Annex C where the noise contours of the Heathrow airports were displayed (Brisbane Airport, 2003). The increment of the aircraft is another technological improvement enhancing the reduction of noise around airports.

The airports work towards the increment of the bypass ratio of the engine, which is the rate of air flowing across the major parts of an engine and capable of eliminating noise through the reduction of the jet exhaust speed and advancing the fuel burn. The engine design improvement requires the engines to have a high bypass ratio and changes of the engine fans at all corners and in the exhaust section of the particular engine (Airports Commission, 2013). There is also the incorporation of the material liners in the interior part of the engine enclosures, as well as additional areas for the absorption of the produced noise. During the take-off, there is significant noise reduction, however it is difficult to reduce the airframe noise when the aircraft is landing and when the engine is very hot. The climb performance of the aircraft is improved, thus improving the noise production through the increment of the distance between the ground and the source of the noise when the aircraft is moving at a very fast speed (Bloomberg, 2005). When designing the aircraft, it is necessary to balance the quantity of the contending design parameters. Through technology, it is possible to make the aircrafts reduce their reduced noise, reduce the fuel burn and gas emission. For example; the made Airbus A380, which was aimed at meeting the quota count of the London Airports’ Night Flying Restrictions Scheme (Salam, Chattopadhyay, Rumi, & Eunus, 2013). The future propulsion technologies associated with engine manufacturing also improve the engine designs for reduce noise around airports. The usage of the high-bypass turbofan engines are other technological improvements towards aviation noise mitigation. There was the publication of a Quieter Heathrow in 2013 by the Heathrow Airport, which aimed at continuous development of aircrafts with the ability to reduce noise.

Hushkitting

This is another process with various strategies enhancing the reduction of noise around the airports through the replacement of some engine components.

Land use planning;

The airports are required to conduct land use developments around the commonly affected areas. It is necessary to encourage land use through commercial and industrial activities in the area around the airports rather than encouraging residential areas and schools to be located around the airports. The airports should adhere to the policies that discourage the economic activities of an airport that might attract residential generation around the surrounding lands (Brisbane Airport, 2003). This objective is for example, met in the UK where regulatory levers and policies are implemented. The residential areas are planned to be located away from the airports.

Operational restrictions and operating restrictions;

The airports deal with limitations of the noise-based action. This is where the movements of the aircrafts producing much noise are prohibited or limited. The UK airports ban various aircrafts because of being very noisy. The airports are changed noise quotas and operate under ranging caps in their movements. The Government and the specific airport are supposed to conduct local planning agreements, for instance in the UK airports; whereby the Government manage Gatwick, Stansted, and Heathrow. The Government tries to set the noise controls at night, thus limiting the movement of the night-scheduled aircrafts (Kendall-Tamiami, 2009). The Quota Count (QC) enables the separation of the taking-off and landing. The Government also provides permits for the number of flights that every airport should have. For example, at Heathrow, no aircraft is required to land before 04.30. Night curfews are mandated by the Governments to restrict the aircraft movements.

Landing charges;

The implementation of the aircraft landing charges encourage the airports to apply the aircrafts that produce less noise. This was the case in the UK airports

Part 150;

The strategy is also referred to as the Airport Noise Compatibility Planning, a program established after the creation of the program in the 14 CFR Part 150 by the Aviation safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979 (Van Wiechen, Franssen, de Jong, & Lebret, 2002). The program is associated with some noise mitigation strategies such as variation of the operational procedures, like landing times or taking-offs, or routing of the flight paths in the areas that are less sensitive for noise. The program is implemented through the maps that allow the communities to realise the affected areas through a scientific or consistent manner, thus the improvement of the land use. The airport operator is required to route the flights efficiently as per the noise-sensitive locations.

Public participation is encouraged through the Part 150 program whereby the members of the community are supposed to be involved in the public meetings and have hearings, as well as give their comments. Moreover, the public is allowed to engage in general committees and technical committees, thus effectively addressing the noise reduction objectives in the groups (Babisch, & Van Kamp, 2009).

Air Traffic Management Practices;

Airports work towards the management of the air traffic in order to reduce noise. The pilots operate under a specific schedule to prevent traffic in the flight paths. For instance, in Brisbane where STARS and SIDs operate under air traffic management practices. The Brisbane airports also apply the climb and descent procedures to reduce noise.

Conclusion

Airports control noise around them through different strategies. The noise control strategies are aimed at improving the nature of the airports’ business. Some of these strategies include technological improvement; whereby the airports improve the nature of their aircraft engines. There is also the Hushkitting, Land use planning, Operational restrictions and operating restrictions, Landing charges, Part 150, and Air Traffic Management Practices strategies. The implementation of these strategies leads to effective mitigation of noise around airports.

References

Airports Commission, (2013). Discussion paper 05: Aviation Noise. Retrieved from; https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/223764/airports-commission-noise.pdf

Babisch, W., & Van Kamp, I. (2009). Exposure-response relationship of the association between aircraft noise and the risk of hypertension. Noise and Health, 11(44), 161. Retrieved from; http://www.noiseandhealth.org/article.asp?issn=1463-1741;year=2009;volume=11;issue=44;spage=161;epage=168;aulast=Babisch

Bloomberg, (2005). Strategies to reduce sound levels related to airports. Retrieved from; http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/noise/airport-noise-study.pdf

Brisbane Airport (2003). Noise management strategies. Retrieved from; http://www.bne.com.au/sites/all/files/content/files/03NMS.pdf

FAA (2016). Aircraft noise issues. Retrieved from; https://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/apl/noise_emissions/airport_aircraft_noise_issues/

Kendall-Tamiami, (2009). NOISE MITIGATION EVALUATION. Retrieved from; http://www.miami-airport.com/pdfdoc/Final_TMB_Noise_Study.pdf

Salam, M. A., Chattopadhyay, N., Rumi, M. J. U., & Eunus, H. Z. I. (2013). A Review on Jet Noise Reduction. Journal of Modern Science and Technology, 1(1). Retrieved from; http://gistworldconpro.com/uploads/4/3/1423238645_222-jalal.pdf

Van Wiechen, C. M., Franssen, E. A., de Jong, R. G., & Lebret, E. (2002). Aircraft noise exposure from Schiphol airport: a relation with complainants. Noise and Health, 5(17), 23. Retrieved from; http://www.noiseandhealth.org/article.asp?issn=1463-1741;year=2002;volume=5;issue=17;spage=23;epage=34;aulast=van