in ManagementHenri Fayol and Peter Drucker Contributions
Question One: What were some of Henri Fayol’s main contributions to the field of management?
Henri Fayol was a French mining engineer, who developed independent the Scientific Management theory, which is a general theory on the business administration, also called Fayol ism (Kreitner, 29). Notably, Fayol has been known as one of the most influential contributors in the modern fled of management. Admittedly, Fayol contributed to different areas to the concept of management. Firstly, Fayol ism is one of the detailed statements about a general theory of management that were developed by Fayol. In Fayol ism, Fayol proposed six main functions of management as well as fourteen principles of management, which are used in modern management (Kreitner, 59).
The six management functions included forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Forecasting refers to making predictions about the future of an organization by understanding the environment both internally and externally. Managers are expected to forecast and provide the strategic direction of an organization based on the analysis and evaluation of the prevailing business situations. In his proposal, Fayol observed that planning is one of the core functions of managers. Organizational planning is the process ensuring that the objectives or goals are achieved at the scheduled time within the brackets of available resources. Therefore, managers need to make sure that all resources are wisely spent failure to which organizational goals and objectives may not be met (Kreitner, 62). Further, Fayol noted that managers are also tasked with organizing activities with the intention of achieving specific goals. However, this must be done effectively through coordinating all departments and sections to ensure alignment of all functions in an institution. The general objective of organizing and coordinating functions is to ensure effective implementation of the plan.
Besides the aforementioned functions, Fayol also included commanding and controlling as the main managerial functions (Kreitner, 50). Notably, a manager is a leader. Therefore, it is expected that a manager of an organization will always have an authority based on the organizational structure. In this way, managers have the authority to command or order their subordinates to act or carry out specific activities. However, commanding should not always be forceful as leaders need to provide instructions on how they expect their orders to be implemented. At the same time, Fayol argued that managers have the responsibility of controlling activities in an organization, which ensures that the planned results coincide with the actual results. Therefore, managers need to provide corrective measures to reduce the variance between planned and actual outcomes as much as possible.
As noted above, most of the principles of management applied in the modern field of management were proposed by Fayol. Among the common management principles is the division of work. According to Fayol , the success of management or organization depends on how work is derived and shared among stakeholders, which need to be done based on the skills and specializations of individuals (Kreitner, 66). Authority is also a management principle proposed by Fayol. As described above, authority depends on the organizational structure of a given institution. At the same time, a manager’s authority is outlined and enshrined in the policies and rules of an organization. Other management principles used today and developed by Fayol include discipline, unity of command, subordination of individual interests,
remuneration, centralization, centralization , scalar chain, order, equity, stability of tenure of personnel, initiative and promotion of team spirit.
Question Four: Choose one of Peter Drucker’s contributions to the field of management and analyze its relevance to contemporary organizations.
Management by Objectives by Peter Drucker
Peter Drucker is considered one of the major thinkers on the contemporary management (Kreitner, 65). Notably, Drucker has vast experience as well as background in different areas including sociology, psychology, law, and journalism. Accordingly, through Drucker’s consultancy assignments he has not only created but developed solutions to several problems of management. In this connection, among the major contributions associated with Drucker include Nature of Management, Management Functions, Organization Structure, Federalism, Management by Objectives, and Organizational Changes.
In the discipline of management, Management by objectives (MBO) is considered as one of Drucker’s contributions. Drucker introduced the MBO concept in 1954, but is has further been modified by Schleh who terms it as management by results. Management by Objectives s (MBO) incorporates organized and systematic approach by focusing on the achievable goals in attaining the best possible results from the resources available as a style of management (Kreitner, 55). Notably, MBO entails method of performance appraisal, setting standards, planning, and motivation. In his opinion, Drucker considered MBO as not only a philosophy of managing but also a technique of management.
According to Drucker, MBO helps in transforming assumptions of management from practicing cattalo to self-control. The Management by Objectives (MBO) is a style used in managing the roles and responsibilities of employees so that the objectives can be achieved in the stipulated time. In order to integrate and practice MBO, an organization should change its culture. Since its development, MBO has become one of the most popular ways of managing workforce in many organizations and institutions, which has led to the revolutionization of the modern management process.
Kreitner, Robert. Management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 2009. Print.