Modern Greek Culture Essay Example

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3Modern Greek Culture

Modern Greek Culture

Why the Battle of Actium is one of the most important of the human history?

The Battle of Actium is one of the most important because it led to the formation of the Roman Empire which has played a major role in the development and civilization of the European languages. This naval war on the Greek Coast between Mark Anthony and Octavian was a struggle for the Roman Empire. After Octavia won he went to be the ruler of the Roman Empire as Caesar Augustus. This is despite having to fight Mark Anthony who was reinforced by Cleopatra’s army. Caesar Augustus is the one who brought up the foundation for the Roman Empire in terms of the mode of education, trade and religion. These are important aspects that have then influenced Europe since the end of the Battle of Actium. It is known that a community can only be fashioned after its leader. The Battle of Actium decided who the leader of the Roman Empire would be. After Octavian won the decision he made for the Roman people to a great extent continue to register their impact even in present times. For example during the time of Caesar Augustus Roman architecture was unique and still continues to serve as a unique feature which is a symbol of tourist attraction from around the world.

Why, according to some authors, is Alexandria the first metropolis? Do you agree?

Many authors consider Alexandria to be the first Metropolis because of its growth from a small port town to the grandest and busiest town in the Roman Empire. The growth registered in the beginning when Mark Anthony chose Alexandria as his center of operations. However it was unfortunately destroyed in the Battle of Actium as Octavian targeted it specifically to destroy Mark Anthony’s operations (Rowan-Robinson, M., 2004, 78). After the battle, Octavian has it rebuilt to its former glory and surpassed that because of the trade that took place at this port, the migration of people to seek jobs there and the infrastructure that was found there such as the Temple of Serapis, the great light house which is considered the seventh wonder of the world and the fact that the town was a seat of learning. In reference to this Rowan-Robinson (2004)I agree that Alexandria was the first metropolis because it was populated and highly commercials. The constant migration of tourists into Alexandria to enjoy is features and traders at the port made it densely populated. The exchange of goods from different countries at the pot and the emerging of other businesses as a result of the demand the port created made it extremely commercial.

How was knowledge institutionalized in Alexandria? What is the significance of this institutionalization?

In Alexandria schools were based on religion. French missionaries set up the first schools to draw people to Christianity. The goal was that because people wanted to teach they would convert to Christianity. However a secular group came up to start their own schools in the belief that no one should be forced to worship. The schools were also divided into wealth levels with aristocrats getting better schools that the less fortunate in Alexandria. The significance of this was learned people with different societal views.

In which way were the Alexandrians leading the way for the knowledge to be scientifically advanced?

The Alexandrians played a great role in the advancement of scientific knowledge. They discovered some facts about earth and other scientific ideas that at first were greatly opposed by people. For hundreds of years, people always thought and believed that the earth was round and that there was a drop point if one walked too far. Greek philosopher, Aristotle, was the first to claim that the earth was round after viewing a curved shadow of earth during a lunar eclipse. Eratosthenes, an Alexandrian, provided more clear evidence which more people could see for themselves every day. At exactly noon during a summer solstice, objects and buildings did not form shadows in the city of Syene in Egypt. However, some 500 miles away, he noticed that a tall building did form a shadow at the same time during the same period of summer solstice. By this observation, he could conclude that the earth was not flat but spherical and even went further to use these measurements and calculated the circumference of the earth which was accurate enough.

Alexandrians were quite vigorous and thirsty of knowledge. They always sought to learn more about the human nature and the environment in which they live in. Not only were they keen on scientific discoveries but also philosophical ideas as well. They led the way for scientific knowledge to be explored more by providing scientific facts regarding some myths that were not correct (Rowan-Robinson, M, 2004, 34). People like Aristotle and Eratosthenes did not consider themselves as scientists even though they did give information and facts that proved the earth was spherical. This information was only investigated more deeply by scientists in later years with better technology which would only make it easier to prove that the earth is spherical. Thus, Alexandrians led the way for knowledge to be scientifically advanced.

What are some of the features of Plato’s hypothesis that the universe is divinely created?

Plato’s hypothesis is a similar one to that which is described according to many religions and their eventual beliefs such as Christianity and Islam. His theory insists that there are two phases of living, the physical and the eternal. The physical is a life that is short lived and perishes eventually while the eternal is long lived and does not end (Johansen, K, 2008, 102). Both phases of life are overseen by a divine being, a Supreme Being, who controls life from its beginning. Plato also describes the aspect of human life and living as the divine craftsman’s handiwork.

Plato also says that during the beginning when earth was being created, things did not have shape or form but this was the work of the divine being. The elements that made up the world of the divine being all got different shapes. These shapes were created by the divine being in order to give order and consistency. These elements that make up the world are built of minute particles and these particles’ shapes and their elements were: earth taking the shape of a cube, air taking the shape of octahedron, water taking the shape of icosahedron and fire taking the shape of tetrahedron. The divine being, being good, wanted to make earth and create human beings with good nature as well. In summary to this, Plato believed that the universe is divinely created mainly because it was created by a divine being.

What is the importance of the Septuagint?

The Septuagint is an old version of the Bible whose origin is from the Greek people. This Bible has several roles in the translation of the Bibles used today. The Septuagint can be referred to as the oldest version of the Old Testament available. The Christians accepted the Septuagint as part of their Old Testament part of the Bible and even cited various parts in the Bible from the Septuagint. Christians and scholars of the scriptures do agree that the Bible would not be as independent as it is without the Septuagint especially in the Old Testament (Johnson, C, 2006, 389). It is a fact that the Septuagint gives a sense of structure and form to the Old Testament of the Scriptures. Also, the language in which the New Testament of the Holy Scripture is written is in the Septuagint’s language. This language referred to the Septuagint’s language is unique.

In the early years, the gentile Christians used the Septuagint as their Holy book since it was, at the time, the only Bible in Greek version. The earlier version of the Bible available at the time of writing the New Testament was the Hebrew version and the Septuagint. The two were equally important in composing the current Bible as some texts were borrowed from it. Also, at the time, the Greek version of the Septuagint was quite relevant and important to some people that it was the version they mostly relied on. Many parts of the Bible have been borrowed from the Septuagint in order to compose what is currently in use and it has played a great role in what is found in the Old and New Testaments of the Bible.

What is the One? How, according to Plotinus, are we supposed to know of its existence? In what sense does Plotinus think there can be proof that it exists? How does Plotinus think it can be apprehended without argument?

Plotinus’ teachings emphasizes on the existence of ‘The One’. The nature of the One does not have multiplicity, division or distinction whatsoever and is self-sustaining. The One is a supreme being, who is the source and cause of everything around. The existence of the One should be noticed by man by the emanation of generative power that effortlessly comes from the One (Rist, M. 1967, 67). This is not normal for any living being on earth and therefore, from the very existence of humans and life itself, this power is emanated from the One and shows the One’s existence. The level of intelligence that comes from the One and the ability to give power and life from Himself to other smaller beings (living creatures of the earth) means that the One has the ability to create life and existence of creatures and still manage to remain fully as a whole. Also the ability to give itself fully without diminishing in terms of life and power to the creatures on earth makes it clear that there is existence of the One, from whom life, power and existence comes from (Rist,
M. 1967,68). The simple understanding and coming to terms with this will reduce the argument about the existence of the One.


Johansen, K., 2008. Plato’s natural philosophy: A study of the Timaeus-Critias. Cambridge University Press

Johnson, C., 2006. The Septuagint TM Law When God Spoke Greek: The Septuagint and the Making of the Christian Bible. Pg. 216

New York: Oxford University Press. 2015. The Classical Review 65.02: 389-391.

Rist, M., 1967. Plotinus: the road to reality. CUP Archive.

Rowan-Robinson, M., 2004. Praising Alexandrians to excess. Physics World