MICROBIOLOGY — MMWR (MORBIDITY/MORTALITY WEEKLY REPOR Essay Example

  • Category:
    Biology
  • Document type:
    Assignment
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    2
  • Words:
    986

MICROBIOLOGY — MMWR (MORBIDITY/MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT

MICROBIOLOGY — MMWR (MORBIDITY/MORTALITY WEEKLY REPOR

MICROBIOLOGY — MMWR (MORBIDITY/MORTALITY WEEKLY REPOR

Cumulative tools by week year 2011

4-week totals year 2011

Incidence values year 2011

Cumulative totals by week year 2011

4-week totals year 2011

Incidence values year 2011

A sample of calculation of 4-week totals 2011

Subtracting 4th 4-week from 5th 4-week to get 4-week totals for the 4th 4-week

Incidence Rate= Number of new cases in a time period * k

Size of at-risk population at midpoint of time period

1st 4-week

Incidence Rate = -9/ 226,995 *100

Anaplasmosis is a disease that is caused by rickettsial parasite that mostly is for ruminants. This organism usually occurs in the blood through the white blood cells. It is typically transmitted through natural means specifically through several haematophagous species of ticks. The other means through which this organism is transmitted is through dehorning, surgical, tattooing, and castration instruments that are usually not disinfected between uses. Despite the fact that this disease is mostly associated with animals, it is also found in human beings. In the United States of America this disease is prevalent in south and west where the tick hosts Dermacentor species are mostly found. A number of vaccines have been developed in order to curb spread of this disease but none of them is functional in the United States of America. This disease has brought a lot of problems especially in the 20th century where it was considered as the major economic outcome in the western parts of this country. This resulted to the increased government actions in controlling ticks especially in 1980s and 1990s. This was done by the use of new acaricides which was supplemented with practical treatment with prolonged antibiotics. These actions made the disease to cease being a national problem in this country.

The organism that causes this disease has been known to go through a comprehensive lifecycle in certain species of ticks. The fly is one of the lifecycle but this is mostly considered as a vector and hence is not considered as a problem since it can not maintain the disease in a given area. As the disease is mostly prevalent in animals, it results to severe anemia and increased in adult infected cattle. As many ruminants do, young infected cattle do not show any clinical sign but they mostly act as carriers. This is a very serious disease that if not properly controlled can be transmitted to human being and cause great number of harms. As a result of this the American government has tried very hard to keep it at low levels.

There are a number of symptoms that are associated with anaplasmosis disease. In some cases anaplasmosis disease is also referred to as tick fever as it is transmitted by ticks. The symptoms include; high grade fever, muscle aches, rash around the area which has been bitten, headaches, and chills. It should be noted that most people confuse these symptoms with those of flu. Symptoms of anaplasmosis disease are mostly seen within three weeks of the tick bite although they can start to be seen as soon as five days after the disease is transmitted. In human beings, these symptoms are not very severe except for the elderly and immune suppressed people. There are other symptoms that are within the body and hence are not seen which include; confusion once the infection has proceeded, difficulties in urinating, and hemorrhages. It is worth noting that if treatment is not sought as fast as possible especially for the severe cases, life threatening symptoms can lead to serious complications such as fever, malaise, and travelling infection. In the present days most of the people who are infected by this disease do not have symptoms or if they occur they are mild.

In children and adults, treatment for anaplasmosis disease is conducted for 14 days with tetracycline. Because of its efficacy and potency, doxycycline drug is mostly used in the treatment of this disease. Additionally, there is a vaccine that was developed in the year 1999 for tick fever but it is mostly for those who are enthusiastic outdoor types.

A graph showing cumulative data for each week over the year

MICROBIOLOGY - MMWR (MORBIDITY/MORTALITY WEEKLY REPOR

This graph shows that the cumulative data per week is not constant and hence changes from week to week. In this case, the data is recorded in terms of four weeks as some of weeks do not have any data. Looking from the graph it is clearly indicated that the first 4-week period has the largest cumulative values. The values are varied and hence its very hard to estimate.

A graph showing the calculated national incidence values over the year studied

MICROBIOLOGY - MMWR (MORBIDITY/MORTALITY WEEKLY REPOR 1 On the other hand, the above graph that shows calculated national incidence values over the year indicates that some figures are positive and others negative. The negative figures shows that there are negative incidences of occurrence of this disease while the positive ones indicate that there is a prevalence of the disease occurrence at some levels. It can be learned from the graph that even when there are some instances that shows occurrence of the disease their magnitudes are very low. This yearly trend of the anaplasmosis disease shows that the incidence of this disease is seasonal and hence has less severe effects to people and animals.

The impact of anaplasmosis disease on poor or developing countries may be more severe as compared to the United States of America because morbidity and mortality rates in these countries are relatively high. In this case, developing countries have not developed means of fighting against diseases like the vaccines that are used in the United States against anaplasmosis disease and hence the rate of being infected is relatively high. Additionally, developing countries lack technologically advanced means of preventing and controlling diseases resulting to many people being infected and dying from various diseases.