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  • McGregor’s theory X and Y has been very helpful in management and decision-making. Through the two theories, the manager can be able to ensure that there is work motivation of the employees. This will in turn lead to better working environment that will translate to improved results. The theories are very relevant as they approach management based on the need and the nature of the organization (Gitman & McDaniel 2008, p. 312). Application of McGregor’s theory in management is a sure way of improving one’s managerial skills and production of the organization. The theories provide a definite solution and avoid vagueness that comes with other management theories. McGregor has actually given the theories the touch and support mechanisms they dearly deserve. The 21st Century has very many challenges that come with employee management relations. With increased automation in the workplaces, there is need for managers to use the XY theory contingently to take managerial decisions.

McGregor’s theory X and Y has been very helpful in management and decision-making. Through the two theories, the manager can be able to ensure that there is work motivation of the employees. This will in turn lead to better working environment that will translate to improved results. The theories are very relevant as they approach management based on the need and the nature of the organization (Gitman & McDaniel 2008, p. 312). Application of McGregor’s theory in management is a sure way of improving one’s managerial skills and production of the organization. The theories provide a definite solution and avoid vagueness that comes with other management theories. McGregor has actually given the theories the touch and support mechanisms they dearly deserve. The 21st Century has very many challenges that come with employee management relations. With increased automation in the workplaces, there is need for managers to use the XY theory contingently to take managerial decisions. Essay Example

  • Category:
    Management
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    Masters
  • Page:
    2
  • Words:
    1190

Douglas McGregor — Theory X and Theory Y and management

Douglas McGregor is a famous sociologist who is credited for his great works in defining management and management decisions. McGregor’s theory XY, found in his book ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’. Written and published in 1960 gives an insight of the decision-making environment for managers and how the decisions will affect motivation in the work place. What is so interesting with his works in this book is that, the two theories have different assumptions that seems to be oppose to each other. McGregor in trying to make these theories relevant to the managers and decision-making, he has given real life examples. The assumptions and the application of these theories are main points of concern for this paper (Waddell, Jones & George 2011, p.47).

The theory X argues that an average person tends to have some form of dislike towards work. The theory argues that since the person tends to hate work, there is need for them to operate under pressure in order for them to work. The theory as such suggests that threat of punishment as one works towards the achievement of organizational goals, is very necessary. The theory further argues that the average person will prefer operating under strict directions in order to avoid responsibility (John & Schermerhorn 2010, p. 273). The theory approaches management with an authoritarian perspective. The theory argues that employees with such characteristics will always view their managers based on the assumptions. Theory Y takes an opposing stand on the nature of human beings and how they behave in the organization. This theory takes more of a participative managerial approach. The theory has an assumption that work takes place naturally. It further has an assumption that human beings apply self control even as they work towards the achievement of the organizational goals. It assumes that people will work well without any form of external influence or pressure such as the threat for punishment (Miller 2008, p. 171). The theory argues that the need to and the achievement of the objectives of the organization, is a function of reward. It argues that humans will always relate this achievement to reward for their hard work. The paper argues further that people often look for responsibility. In an organization set up, the theory asserts that people will always want to achieve something and be associated with that achievement. They will, therefore, want to take all the responsibility for that success. Theory Y is based on the assumptions that generally, human beings tend to be creative and imaginative and that these traits are in the majority of the populations. It assumes that the industry only uses some part of the intellectuality of an average person (Sapru 2006, p. 221).

. McGregor’s XY theory provides a platform through which the twenty first century managers can be able to make sound decisions. The theories provide two sets of leadership that the managers are supposed to apply; the autocratic, which is based on the X theory and the participative style of management. The choice of which to apply will depend on the nature of the employees that are under a manager and the general behaviors of the employees in the work place. The two theories are very relevant in the management functions of the 21st century. Given the ever changing business and organizational environment, there is need to have a management that is based on application of policies contingently. The intertwining of the two assumptions gives the manager two in one solution for decision-making (Kopelman, Prottas & Davis 2008, p. 255-275). A manager will, therefore, apply the two theories based on the situation at hand. This will help the manager to specifically deal with various decision-making situations without having to just generalize. The two theories are also very relevant to the 21st century managers as they are able to offer the managers a platform through which they can be able to analyze and evaluate their juniors. In order to apply either theory X or Y, the manager will be required to study their character traits and behaviors, and rank them according to which category they belong to. This way, the managers will be able to understand their juniors better and take decisions that will stir up the objectives of the organization. Motivation is very important in the organization, implying that the objectives of the organization have to be achieved. As such, the X and Y theory provides for evaluation of employees in a manner that will make them work while they are motivated (McGregor & Cutcher-Gershenfeld 2006, p. 156). The application of the X and Y theory contingently, will ensure that decisions taken by the managers are aimed at leaving the employees to be motivated. The decision for instance to undertake punishment should be proportionate to the mistake committed by the employee. If the punishment is more than proportionate mistake, then the employee might then be demoralized and might not work well. This will hamper the achievement of the organizational goals. The managers through the application of the XY theory will ensure that the decisions they make do not hurt the organization, as they will have done thorough studies on logistics in the workplace (Gordon 2003, p. 143).

McGregor’s theory X and Y has been very helpful in management and decision-making. Through the two theories, the manager can be able to ensure that there is work motivation of the employees. This will in turn lead to better working environment that will translate to improved results. The theories are very relevant as they approach management based on the need and the nature of the organization (Gitman & McDaniel 2008, p. 312). Application of McGregor’s theory in management is a sure way of improving one’s managerial skills and production of the organization. The theories provide a definite solution and avoid vagueness that comes with other management theories. McGregor has actually given the theories the touch and support mechanisms they dearly deserve. The 21st Century has very many challenges that come with employee management relations. With increased automation in the workplaces, there is need for managers to use the XY theory contingently to take managerial decisions.

References

Gitman L.J. and McDaniel, C 2008, The Future of Business: The Essentials, Cengage Learning, Chicago, 2008, pp. 312.

Gordon, J 2003, Pfeiffer’s Classic Activities for Developing Leaders, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 143.

John, R. and Schermerhorn, Jr 2010, Management, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 273.

Kopelman, RE, Prottas, DJ & Davis, AL 2008, «Douglas McGregor»s Theory X and Y: toward a construct-valid measure», Journal of Managerial Issues, vol. 20, no. 2, Summer, pp. 255-271.

McGregor, D. and Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J 2006, The human side of enterprise,McGraw-Hill Professional, London, pp.156.

Miller, K 2008, Organizational communication: approaches and processes, Cengage Learning, NewYork. pp 171.

Sapru, RK 2006, Administrative Theories and Management Thought, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. Texas, p. 221.

Waddell T., Jones S. & George B 2011,»how managers should personally behave to motivate their employees and encourage them to perform at high levels and be committed to achieving organizational goals,» Cengage Learning, New York. pp. 47.