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Materials and Bills of Quantities for Designing a Building

6.4. Material sustainability

The residential apartments are built in a neighborhood where houses are build using modern designs and architectural designs. This modern design incorporates the aspect of sustainability and durability of the house and hence the materials used are of good quality, modern and sustainable in order to achieve the modern design of the house. Materials used should give the house service over a long time and be resistant to the aspects of tear and wear. The roof is bricked to prevent the effects of the sun on the normal steel roofing sheets. The bricks are also none corrosive to the acidity effects of the rain water and will be sustainable for a long period of time. Termite barriers are used in the structures that are put on the ground to ensure they are durable and they do not get eaten by termites which make the structures weak. The foundation of the apartment has been well laid through clearing of structures to ensure durability of the house even in adverse conditions. Bricks and tiles are more durable than normal floors and they are being used to regulate the temperatures of the house due to the adverse cold and hot winter and summer seasons. All the materials used are of good quality due to the modern nature of the house and the regulatory standards of the ESD that require uniformity in the construction of the houses in that neighborhood to attract people.

6.41. Features looked at for

There are many reasons that make the material being used in construction be considered as durable. The first reason is the problem it solves, or how much affective it is at providing service compared to others. The use of tiles and bricks in controlling the room temperatures during the different season shows that is will offer service over a long period of time. The number of purposes a material can serve is also a justification that the material is sustainable. The cost of materials also shows how important a material is. This in turn shows that the material will offer greater services and over a longer time. The material will serve its purpose without needing additional resources which add to the cost. Tiles will offer a longer life time than the normal floor which is easily worn out and is subject to repairs in their lifetime. Cheap is expensive hence the cheaper the material the less effective it will be and the less sustainable it will be. It will provide poor services over a short period of time. Another feature considered in the sustainability of a material is the convenience/easy usage of a material. A material that improves the way an activity is done and makes it better provides value and makes it possible to do the activities regularly and with ease hence sustainable. The solar panel is important in providing energy in form of heat and light when the normal power is not available and this makes it sustainable. It is also very ecological in that is uses the natural resources provided by nature which is very affordable and easily accessible. The energy it consumes is from the sun and does not cost the user. The process of manufacturing the material and the contents are also important pointers of a sustainable material. Materials which are made from hard substances are durable than others made from fragile materials and this makes them less durable. Those that go through longer and more and complex processes in the making are usually better and more quality than those that go through faster and less processes. The safety and health legislations may also encourage people to use various materials this materials are usually the ones that meet the regulations and standards and so they offer better services and are sustainable. The sustainability of a material can also be assessed by its ability to be recycled or reused. Those that have withstood the test of time and have offered services for longer periods of time but can still be used to provide the same service again are sustainable because they offer service for a long time do not wear out.

 6.5 bill of quantities

Electrician work



Two-Way Switches


Dimmer Switches


Mains and Switchboard


Circuit Breakers









Windows Frames and Doors








Moisture barrier membrane

Reinforcement and Bar chairs


Termite Barrier


Bathroom Walls


Bathroom Floor


Kitchen Walls


Kitchen Floor


Laundry Walls


Laundry Floor


$ 389,217,00

6.51 Summary

In construction, the designs used were set according to the nearby buildings for uniformity. Most of the houses were modern and the architectural designs used were affected by the materials used in construction. Therefore sustainable materials were used to ensure the project gave service to the users over a long period of time. In choosing the materials, various factors were considered to ensure they are sustainable. The cost of materials, the process used in making the materials, the ability of the material to be used for different purposes and to be recycled or reused were some of the factors that were considered in ensuring the materials were sustainable.

6.52 Cost breakdown

There were different activities carried out before the project was completed .All this activities required resources both monetary and labor resources that enabled the house to be constructed. First there was preparation of the area where the construction was done. This involved activities such as sight drawing and soil analysis and testing which costed $ 20,000.fees and cost of services such as building certificate fees, acquiring a demolition permit for demolishing structures to create space for the construction and insurance costs amounted to $995.Excavation was the carried out and involved: leveling the ground, removing excess soil and rocks this costed $ 100,000.Drainage activities were carried out through setting up of internal and external drainage and gutters which costed $ 775.Wall framing and ceiling framing activities costed $154,000.Sand ,cement, face bricks and color oxide were used in the process of laying the bricks and the total cost from the process costed $99,000.The bathroom kitchen and laundry room were tiled on the floor and walls at a cost of $ 81,0000.The building was painted on both the interior and exterior including beams and stairs at a cost of $ 72,664 while the electrical work for the whole house including the setting up of switches, circuit breakers and mains costed $ 81,000.The apartments were well finished and were ready for occupation at the required time and the whole construction work including labor, purchase of materials and the cost of legal activities totaled to $ 2,460,222.47.


Rawlinson construction guide