Marketing Essay Example

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8Marketing coursework

Marketing Coursework


A brand is expected to create strong relationship with their customers for effective marketing. The relationship should be strong and sustainable. To create strong lasting customer relationship, the organisation starts by managing sources of value and through acquiring and retaining the most desirable customers. After acquiring the most profitable customers, the firm expands the relationship through stimulation of usage, upgrades and cross buying. Not all customers are profitable and investment on the brand customers is based on their profit potential (Parvatiyar & Sheth, 2001).

Building customer relationship starts with customer acquisition. This is through targeting the right customers based on firm offering, future profitability and their contribution to the overall risk. After acquiring the right customers, the brand focuses on customer retention. The firm works hard to ensure high customer satisfaction and better price perceptions. This ensures that the firm has a longer relationship with the customer. The brand then focuses on relationship expansion. This involves programs aimed at retaining customers as well as marketing programs. It involves enhancing customer loyalty and cross buying (Storbacka & Lehtinen, 2001).

The loyalty and reward programs are aimed at stimulating the purchase behaviour and enhance customer relationship. This can be proved by the successful guest loyalty program introduces by the Hilton Hotels more than a decade ago. Through the program, Hilton hotels were able to focus on their profitable customers and reduce the weight of their brand positioning. Loyalty programs help a lot in reinforcing the purchase behaviour through the vitreous cycle. This is where high experience with the product leads to more usage hence more experience. Through the loyalty programs, it becomes possible to strengthen the customer perception of the brand. Frequency programs are used to reward customers based on the number of purchases (Peppers & Rogers, 2004).

The business tries to enhance the customer experience beyond having personalised connections. The customer is considered the most valuable asset in the organisation. Consistency and relevancy are used to enhance customer experience. Consumer experience is managed through communication, visual identities, brand environment, people, and cobranding among other brand contacts (Parvatiyar & Sheth, 2001). Another example of a firm that managed to build customer relationship is Guinness which is a global firm. Due to trends in Irish beer market where customers were drinking at home due to high prices, Guinness came up with a plan to enhance loyalty. The company started by identifying their target audience which was aged between 21-60 years. The marketing strategy that was used aimed at maximising relationship value between the pubs and customers. The firm leveraged on the relationship to build brand loyalty and cross selling the cans to customers who used to change brands when drinking from home. The firm came up with a program for customer acquisition. Staffs were trained in pubs to recruit consumers. Customers were encouraged to register and personalised vouchers were mailed to customers at home from their favourite pubs. Consumers were given a welcome pack after signing up. There were competitions, sport tickets and holiday prize draws. Consumers were invited to watch sports facilitated by Guinness and product vouchers were provided. The campaign was a winner and the consumption levels rose. The company was able to reach its goals and increase the number of loyal customers through enhanced customer relationships (Stone & Jacobs, 1988).


Advertising is an influential and persuasive means of communication to the target audience. This involves a well drafted communication strategy in order to come up with an effective advert. A communication strategy is a holistic planning aimed at engaging the brand audience with a high level of effectiveness. The elements of a communication strategy are an objective, budget, target, guiding idea, channel, integration, measurement. An objective is the most important component in a communication strategy. This is the goal to be attained through the designed communication strategy. The strategy must have a budget. This specifies how much will be spent on communication. There must be consistency between the budget allocated and the objective. The target involves the group which the brand wants to have a dialogue with. Once the target group is identified, it becomes easy to design an effective communication strategy. A communication strategy must have its guiding idea. This is an idea that will make the consumer spend their time listening. The idea must be usable in different channels. The channels choices are many and include paid media, public relations, social media, newspapers and magazines. Integration involves ensuring that the chosen channels are able to work together. For example, a celebrity can be chosen to appear in a PR and in advertising. Lastly, the communication strategy effectiveness should be measurable (Belch & Belch, 2003).

Through ensuring all elements of communication strategy are adhered to, it is possible to design an effective advert. The essence of communication strategy in advertising is to design messages that are able to reach the target audience. Through advertising, a personal message is transmitted through an impersonal media. The message transmitted through the advertisement must be able to reflect the images occurring through the IMC program. Three message strategies must be followed in advertising. These are affective strategies, conative strategies and cognitive strategies. Through integrating the three strategies with various types of appeal through the selected media, an advert is able to succeed. Example of firm that has achieved success through advertising is McDonalds. McDonalds have been able to launch a successful broad advertising campaign in all countries of operations. In additional to media, the company has high use of billboards and signage. The company uses the phase “I’m loving it” on some of the adverts which is highly striking. The expression is artistically applied in their billboards making a good visual impression. The message in McDonalds is well crafted to target the young adults which have led to high sales and profits. The communication strategies used by McDonalds are able to satisfy the customer needs. Through use of worldwide web, McDonalds is able to reach a wide customer base in most countries.

Another successful advertising strategy is the one used by emirates airline. The airline places most of their advertisement online, in travel agencies websites and their website. The airline has also been able to use celebrities in their advertising campaigns. For example, the airline was able to gain a lot of publicity through use of an advertisement featuring Jennifer Aniston spending over $20 million. The airline is one of the most successful in the region and globally through their marketing campaigns as low cost airline.


To create an innovative culture requires thinking and acting differently. This is through being willing to cannibalise the current success, adopting a future market focus, taking on risk, asymmetric incentives, use of internal markets and product champions. It involves tapping on the creative potential of the firm workers. The firm starts by creating the right organisation climate. The firm must also be ready to use the full potential that is already in their disposal. The innovative climate can be created through ensuring people ideas are already at the heart of the management philosophy (Cusumano, 2010). Employee must be given room to grow and learn things from their mistakes. Investment in openness trusts and internal talent mobility should be encouraged. This creates an environment where creativity and innovation can flourish. An example is Nokia where employees are allowed to think unlike norm and learn from mistakes. The sense of community at Nokia creates trust and openness. The organisation must invest in best employees through attracting and retaining creative talent. Innovation requires ideas which are gained from the talented individuals. This is through hiring individuals with diverse abilities and interests. It is also important for the hired employees to have diverse backgrounds and personalities. An example is IDEO which is a highly innovative global company. IDEO employs employees who have exceptional skills. The selection process for the employees is very extensive just like Nokia. Lastly, the firm must strike a balance between innovation and efficiency. The organisation must be ready to create trust in innovation. This involves having workers who works as a team, shares ideas and information (Martins & Terblanche, 2003).

Apple Computers is one of the world most innovative companies. The firm has been able to create an innovative culture in the face of increasing global competition. Innovation at Apple Computers has led to massive success. Tesla Motors has been developing fully electric vehicles and power train components. The company has been able to attain the best position in innovation (Forbes, 2015). At Emirates Airlines, innovation has been able to enhance their growth. For example, Emirates Airlines was the first commercial airline globally to have showers aboard planes. The airline has been able to surpass the customer expectations through innovation (Travel weekly, 2014).

The lessons that can be learned from the most innovative firms are; learn from mistakes, hire best employees, create innovative work environment and defining leadership boundaries. Apple and Tesla Motors have been able to learn from their mistakes and used them to catapult new innovations. Failures in innovative firms are used as a stepping stones to come up with better products. While hiring innovative firms such as Apple, Emirate Airlines and Tesla Motors hires best employees with exceptional skills. The employees are able to bring in new ideas leading to innovations. An environment where creativity and flow of ideas is nourished is required. For example, apple has an open environment where there are no personal cubicles or offices. The leader should be able to give clear visions. The leader should be innovative and should not restrict talent as seen in the case of Steve Jobs (Cusumano, 2010).

References January 2016 from, th, Tesla Motors, Retrieved 26World most innovative companiesForbes (2015).

. The McGraw− Hill.Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspectiveBelch, G.E. & Belch, M.A., (2003).

. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books.Successful direct marketing methodsStone, B. & Jacobs, R., (1988).

. McGraw-Hill Companies.Customer relationship management: Creating competitive advantage through win-win relationship strategiesStorbacka, K., & Lehtinen, J. (2001).

. John Wiley & Sons.Managing customer relationships: A strategic frameworkPeppers, D., & Rogers, M. (2004).

(2), 1-34.3, Journal of Economic and Social researchParvatiyar, A., & Sheth, J. N. (2001). Customer relationship management: Emerging practice, process, and discipline.

(1), 64- 74.6, European journal of innovation managementMartins, E. C., & Terblanche, F. (2003). Building organisational culture that stimulates creativity and innovation.

. Oxford University Press.Staying power: Six enduring principles for managing strategy and innovation in an uncertain world (lessons from Microsoft, Apple, Intel, Google, Toyota and more)Cusumano, M. A. (2010). to-drive-growth-for- Emirates/ January 2016 from, th. Travel Weekly, Retrieved 26Innovation to spearhead Emirates growth strategy may 2014). thTravel weekly (8