Managing Quality,PROJECT ON TQM, Phase 1 Essay Example
The purpose of this report is to understand TQM or Total Quality Management better particularly in its capacity to improve organisational performance. This report contains information about TQM or Total Quality Management such as various definitions of TQM, its history and key figures in the development of TQM, philosophies and principles behind TQM, and TQM culture. In particular, the report discusses the various characteristics of TQM continuous improvement, teamwork, quality based on customer expectations, the needs of customers as main driving force in organisation, and greater emphasis on quality over prices and other factors. The research method used to obtain this information is literature review of materials relevant to TQM. Result of the research suggest that TQM is structured and systematic and with useful philosophies and principles that organisations can apply to ensure high quality of products and services and total customer satisfaction. However, organisations considering TQM should adopt TQM culture otherwise; implementation of this quality management will fail.
Table of Contents
4TQM Definition 2.
5TQM History 3.
6TQM Philosophies and Principles 4.
7TQM Culture 5.
The lack of attention and emphasis on quality is one the commonly cited reasons for organisation’s failure and ineffectiveness. For instance, Japanese products before the 1960s were known for shoddy workmanship due to lack of attention to detail and quality . For this reason, innovative individuals such Deming, Juran, and Crosby introduced the idea of quality management which is now known as TQM or Total Quality Management. However, the concept and implementation of TQM is complex and require further exploration. The following sections define TQM and discuss the history and individuals responsible for changing traditional organisational practices into quality-oriented strategies. In particular, Section 3 discusses various TQM philosophies and principles relevant to quality management while Section 4 discusses TQM culture and its role in ensuring success of TQM initiatives.
TQM or Total Quality Management is a structured and systematic way to improve quality through dedication and participation of all members of the organisation . It consist of various philosophies management of an organisation can use to ensure efficient achievement of goals and objectives, maximise stakeholder value, and maintain customer satisfaction . Other definitions of TQM suggest that it is characterised by its principles, practices, and techniques such as continuous improvement and teamwork and quality based on customer expectations . In TQM for instance, product and service quality are responsibilities of the entire organisation rather than individual employees . It is where the organisation’s culture focus on greater efficiency and satisfying customer consistently through integration, techniques, training, and constant improvement of organisational processes .
The history of TQM can be traced back on three important individuals such as Edward Deming, Joseph Juran, and Philip Crosby. Deming introduced statistical quality control theories and quality management in the 1950s. According to , Deming was invited by a number of Japanese companies to describe his theories about the importance of top management quality leadership, customer/supplier quality partnerships, and continuous quality improvement in product development and manufacturing process. These companies subsequently embrace Deming’s ideas and apply TQM in their respective organisations.
Another key figure in TQM history is Joseph Juran, who also introduced quality control principles in Japan in the 1950s. However, Juran’s TQM has three important areas or “Quality Trilogy” which quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement . Juran’s idea of TQM emphasises the impact of poor management in the quality of products and services and the importance of companywide approach in producing quality products . For instance, Juran’s “Pareto principle” emphasised that 80% of problems are mainly due 20% of sources, people, or things thus fixing this 20% result to improvement of the entire system .
The last key figure is Philip Crosby who introduced extended the idea Total Quality Management in 1979 in order to help organisations improve their effectiveness and achieve high quality results. In his book “Quality is Free” , Crosby introduced TQM principles and outlined 14 steps that can be applied by managers to move their organisation in the right direction . Crosby is recognised as the father of “zero defects” and credited for starting the quality revolution in Europe and the United States .
TQM Philosophies and Principles
TQM philosophy is generally a combination of different quality management philosophies and approaches . For instance, two of the most important philosophy in TQM is to understand the needs of each customer and letting these needs to drive the activities of the organisation. Another is to compete through quality of services rather than prices and other factors .
According to , the main points in TQM philosophy is to ensure that the organisation provides quality products and services, involvement and dedication of every members of the organisation to quality, and level of quality based on customer perception rather than management’s idea of quality. A good example of this TQM philosophy is the one being applied by Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, a business organisation known for delivering exceptional guest service. This company believed in the philosophy that teamwork and fulfilment of customer needs create a positive business environment and high quality services . Although there are variations in TQM framework and implementation, all TQM philosophies seems to point in one direction which is achieving the best quality, proactive approach to management, teamwork, and continuous improvement of processes .
TQM philosophy based on Crosby’s work can be described as quality conforming to requirement, quality through prevention, quality level measured by having zero defects, and quality measured by the consequences of non-conformance. In order to comply with these TQM philosophies and to succeed in implementation, an organisation need to follow TQM principles which according include adopting a management led approach, adopting a culture of prevention rather than detection, and initiatives with greater emphasis on total customer satisfaction. It also include the principle of measuring the cost of quality, making it right the first time, scope emphasising ownership and commitment, organisational wide theme of continuous improvement, training and education, cooperation and teamwork, and recognising those who did extremely well in practicing quality in the organisation.
TQM Culture is made up of values and beliefs derived from TQM philosophies and principles and these include organisation members carrying out the work with the objective of delivering quality products and services to the customer . In essence, the basis for TQM is cultural change or the development of culture that puts quality on top of other priorities . Another is eliminating traditional management thinking such as short-term profitability thinking and unwillingness to invest time, money, and leadership effort in building a quality organisation. Another is giving out control of day-to-day decision making in order for employees to have real commitment in both words and actions . According to , TQM is not merely about a philosophy but a culture committed to total customer satisfaction with resources, materials, and equipments are effectively utilized. Therefore, it requires adoption of a culture that blends ethics, integrity, trust, training, teamwork, leadership, recognition, and effective communication.
TQM culture improves the effectiveness and flexibility of an organisation as people in a particular organisation works together with common aims and objectives. This in particular is eliminating errors, preventing waste, and doing things right first time . These according to are realised through genuine management commitment, companywide implementation, dedication to continuous improvement, and strictly following the guiding principles of TQM. A culture willingly agrees on customer requirements, a culture where employees work closely and understand customers and suppliers, a culture committed in doing the right things and doing them right first time. A culture that monitors and measures its success, persistently pursues improvement, a culture that recognised the importance of management commitment and leadership, value training as an essential aspect of quality, and effectively communicates.
TQM recognise the importance of quality, continuous improvement, and appropriate organisational culture in achieving customer satisfaction and organisational growth. TQM is a structured and systematic way of pursuing long-term organisational goals and ensuring competitiveness in the market. The key philosophy of TQM is recognising customer needs and allowing these needs to drive the organisation. However, this can only be achieved by adopting a TQM culture, which essentially a culture committed to quality and continuous improvement. In conclusion, TQM brings quality culture to organisations and enhance customer satisfaction by delivering their particular needs.
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