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Managing People 8


Table of Contents

Table of figures 3

41.0 Introduction

41.1 Motivation as a workforce enegagement issue

52.0 Relationship of motivation and organisation engagement

93.0 Motivation as a challenge in the organisation

113.1 Review of employee engagement

124.0 Ways of fostering employee engagement in an organisation

0 Conclusion 135.


Table of figures

Figure 1: McGregor’s x and y theory 6

Figure 2: Process-based approaches 7

Figure 3: Utrecht Work Engagement Scale 8

Figure 4: Gallup Workplace Audit model 9


1.0 Introduction

Motivation is clearly a significant influence in an organisations workforce. It influences an employee’s ability in their work environment helping them improve their output as a result. Most factors that influence workforce engagement can be altered and manipulated however for motivation it is quite difficult. This, therefore, reveals how crucial motivation is to any organisations workforce engagement. Motivation is, therefore, the significant determinant of an organisation workforce performance and its relation to other players within the organisation (Sharon, 2014). Motivation as a factor fostering organisation workforce engagement has been traced back to the scientific management and human relation movement in line with the human resource approach. This paper, therefore, aims to review the factors contributing to workforce engagement and the how the organisation approach to the motivation issue poses a challenge to workforce engagement.

1.1 Motivation as a workforce enegagement issue

Over the years Motivation has been a significant managerial issue. The current changes in organisation and individual work principles, processes and practices have affected the motivation levels in an organisation and at an individuals scale. Motivation in our current time and date is now fostered by work-life balance, working freedom and formal performance management processes (Brajer-Marczak, 2014). Organisations are increasingly fostering their efforts of ensuring that their workforce is motivated and engaged which has been attributed to foster a great deal of success in an organisations workforce. However, since the motivation level of each individual vary, there is no an exact science to employees motivation. It seems that there is little that an organisation can do when it comes to workforce motivation since the employee’s motivation level are dependent on various factors which an organisation might have little or no control over. However, organisations which have been reported to further the aspect of workforce motivation and engagement have reported that they have recorded a significant improvement in their workforce morarle and engagement and productivity in the long end
(Crosby, D. (n.d.).

2.0 Relationship of motivation and organisation engagement

Organisations have used different motivation concepts in an effort to foster the organisation engagement some of these concepts include; the Maslow hierarchy of needs theory, McGregor x and y theory, Heisenberg two-factor theory and McClelland theory of needs concepts (Ahmed 2013). In order to foster workforce engagement organisation have focused on motivation in two distinct strategies, this includes personal motivation and organisational motivation. Personal motivation focuses on what motivates each employee at the workplace while organisational motivation focuses on the approaches taken up by the organisation which ensure that employees are motivated at the workplace (Vestal, 2012). McGregor’s x and y theory have been influential in motivating employees through the carrot and stick approach.


Figure 1: McGregor’s x and y theory

Organisations have also used process-based approaches to foster motivation in an organisation. These approaches are used to study how motivation takes place in an organisation. Thus, they reveal the reasoning behind employee’s choice of a certain behavioural option
(Miller, 2014). On the other hand, it also spells out the need for employees needs to be fulfilled in order to meet their satisfaction needs in line with their goals.


Figure 2: Process-based approaches

These organisations used the expectancy and equity theory in order to foster its employee’s motivation levels. Organisation also conducts surveys to point out at the key motivators of the organisation workforce and how they rank in the organisation workforce motivation factor portfolio (Ahamed 2013). The connection between workforce motivation and employee engagement is evident through the definition of workforce engagement where it is defined as a show of willingness and commitment by employees and another factor in an organisation where they willingly help out fostering their business performance. Workforce motivation, in this case, is the driving force behind the willingness of these individuals in an organisation.

Employee engagement and motivation also relate in that they both foster the cognitive, physical and emotional aspects of the employee’s workforce. Thus, the emotional and personal energy invested by an individual in an organisation workforce is determined by their emotional level and engagement with the other employees. The two most significant measures of employee engagement Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Gallup Workplace Audit have also spelt out the relationship between employee workforce engagement and motivation
(Shuck, Adelson and Reio, 2016).


Figure 3: Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

These two measures of employee engagement claim that motivation and workforce engagement are fostered by positive working condition, opportunities, and the significance of tasks in an organisation. These factors, on the other hand, are all dependent on the motivation levels of an individual (Kompaso & Sridevi, 2010).


Figure 4: Gallup Workplace Audit model

3.0 Motivation as a challenge in the organisation

However, motivation poses a common challenge in the organisation. Motivation in an organisation’s workforce varies depending on individual employee’s needs that need to be satisfied. This has therefore forced most organisations to use multiple workforce motivation tools to motivate its workforce. It can be quite expensive for an organisation to take up all these multiple motivation tools and strategies which on the other hand do not guarantee employees workforce engagement which is the organisation main goal (Systems, n.d.). Motivation is also a quite demanding aspect especially if it’s being implemented across an organisation workforce. In this case, it will require constant assessment of the workforce to note their key motivating factors. Secondly, motivation of an entire organisation workforce calls for constant review of the motivation factors being implemented in the organisation (Exter 2013). This is due to the constantly changing motivation factors which motivate the organisation workforce. Therefore, the organisation management is forced to ensure that the motivation factor in its policy is in line with those of its workforce (Sharon, 2014).

Motivation contrary poses a challenge in the organisation in cases of indirect motivation of the organisation workforce. Due to lack of a role model or a figure for the organisation workforce to follow, motivation might not be quite effective as it might be intended. This kind of motivation is in most cases characterised by setbacks since the energy transmitted from the organisation management to the workforce might in some cases fall short to some of the organisation employees (Pandita and Bedarkar, 2015). Motivation poses a challenge to the organisation having that it will require a turnaround of most of the organisation policies, principles and values. This might interrupt some of the currently running projects and operations of the organisation. However, motivation can impact the organisation positively especially through fostering of the organisation workforce performance. Similarly, the organisation is guaranteed of a significant improvement in its productivity and overall performance (Miller 2014).

3.1 Review of employee engagement

Employees’ engagement is an organisational concept in the business and organisations environment that is increasingly being considered by both local and multinational organisations. These organisations are increasing embracing workforce engagement as it helps them to retain the top performing and talented employees in the organisation. Due to the current shortage of skilled and talented employees in the organisation workforce, employee engagement has become an essential concept in the organisations (Pandita and Bedarkar, 2015). Engaged employees, in this case, refers to the cognitively vigilant employees in an organisation and those that are emotionally connected to the organisation. Gallup Management Journal 2015 employee engagement index claim that in the United States only a mere 29% of the entire countries workforce are engaged in their jobs. These particular employees are claimed to have profound connection to the organisation they are working for. It also claims that 54% of the countries workforce is not engaged in, for this portion, it is reported that these employees have shown tendencies of constantly checking out of their workplace before time and portraying behaviours indicating that they aren’t passionate about their work. 17% of United States workforces have been reported to be actively disengaged these particular employees are claimed to be to openly acting out their unhappiness (Brajer-Marczak, 2014).

Mohanan, et al.( n.d) claims that employee engagement relates to the organisation through motivation however he is also keen to emphasise that in most time it varies due to the varying motivation levels of organisation employees. Smith and Markwick (2009) also give their opinion on employee engagement by claiming that it is a complex organisational issue however it is quite important for an organisation. They claim that employee engagement is dependent on the determinants and consequences of engagement at work which are all fostered by motivation. Haski-Leventhal, (2012) also goes ahead to claim that motivation helps the organisation employees to strive towards their goals which may include; work-life balance and employee satisfaction.

Ram & Gantasala (2011) on the other hand reviews the consequences and antecedents of employee engagement where they draw some relation of it to organisation motivation. In this case, Ram & Gantasala (2011) reviews the impact of motivation in an organisation and how motivational factors in an organisation can improve the work efficiency and progress. However, they are also keen to claim that motivation might also pose a challenge to the organisation Human Resource department or management as a whole. Bijaya KumarSundaray (2011) claims the organisation motivation is the most significant dimension of employee engagement in an organisation. Shuck, et al. (2016).claims that enough attention is not given to organisation motivation since organisation managers fear that any focus put on to organisation motivation might lead to the organisation incurring more expenses regarding work appraisal. On the other hand, he emphasises on the impact of organisation motivation by claims that it not only fosters the overall organisation performance but also guarantees improvement of its product or service quality, profit, productivity and employee’s adaptability and satisfaction

4.0 Ways of fostering employee engagement in an organisation

The best practice of fostering employee engagement in an organisation is strategic imperativeness. The organisation management has to ensure that fostering of employee engagement in an organisation should be carried out in an imperative strategic manner (Byrne, R 2012). Thus, it should be the organisation’s key strategy where the overall strategic plan is built around it. On the other hand, the organisation should ensure that all managerial levels in the organisation are aware of the significance and importance of employee engagement in the organisation (Pandita and Bedarkar, 2015).

Kompaso and Sridevi, (2010) carried out a study to determine the importance of employee engagement. In this study, they monitored the managerial and mentoring behaviours of two multinational company’s management. They noted that these companies focused more on the communication, role provision and clarification, company vision articulation and creation of decisive team (Sharon, 2014). However, they neglected the issue of instilling confidence in the workforce. Brajer-Marczak (2014) contributes to this issue by claiming that although various studies have revealed that authentic leadership has had a significant effect on employee engagement, these effects are fostered by motivational factors in the organisation.

Most studies on employee engagement have noted that motivational factors in an organisation play a huge role in fostering employee engagement. These studies have also noted the significant relationship between employee engagement and motivational factors in an organisation. For instance in Cawe (2006)’s ten-year study of the factors influencing employee engagement he noted that motivation played a significant part in fostering this issue in an organisation. On the other hand, he also noted that other factors such as the organisation leadership, culture communication and talent mind-set also influenced the impact on organisation engagement in the organisation, however, not as motivation did.

0 Conclusion

Organisations have to draw more emphasis on motivation within the organisation in an effort to foster employee engagement in the organisation. As evidently noted organisation motivation has also impacted the aspect of employee engagement in the organisation through improving the employee’s satisfaction. Motivation also fosters levels of commitment in an organisation through enabling the organisation workforce to set goals and work on achieving them in the long end. Motivation, thus, can be fostered through engaging with the organisation’s workforce in order to note the motivation factors which they view highly and using these factors in the creation of an organisation’s motivation policy.


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