Management Research Essay Example
The research provides an overview of how management is an important key to success of an organization. Management involves planning, organizing, controlling and leading of stakeholders in the achievement of firm objectives. Managers have a task of ensuring every worker in an organization performs their duties as required despite the limited resources that are present in the company. Maintenance of good relationship amo0ng members provides less conflict, more performance of activities hence the growth of a company. Realization of different types of workers helps in handling them differently based on their delicateness so as they feel comfortable, secure and recognized. The method used to collect data included conversation analysis, emails and corporate artifacts.
The findings show how different factors of the organization affect performance and decision making. They include centralization, formalization, hierarchical level and departmentalization. Various categories of stakeholders are involved in the organization whose performance is the key factor for growth and development of the firm. Good management ensures proper communication strategies that are understandable for all workers to show the transparency of information flow. Improving the performance of staffs, there is the need for compensation, training, and development, after a proper decision-making process. The organization should have structures, department and decentralized power that ensures decision easier for the required changes and improvement.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Section 1 4
Section 2 7
Findings and Discussion 7
In all environment, there exist different business firms that produce goods and services, social and religious institutions such as schools, charities all of which are determined to reach required goals. For goals accomplishment, systematic processes adoption is necessary for that the organization will ensure proper performance of operations and utilization of resources. Management involves several interrelated activities assigned by managers to achieve the desired objectives with the inclusion of both physical and human resources in the process of ensuring healthy external environment.
The manager gives instructions in a simple and clear understandable format to induce meaning. The instructions influence decision making and behavior that run activities (Pettigrew, 2014). The meaning is made relevant to the workers in a way that they understand how to carry out their task. The inspirational message should be easily understandable, linked to the purpose in which manager want to connect daily activities of the company. The research seeks to show how naturally occurring data occurs, how the characteristic of the organization affect manager decision making, the way manager bring about the necessary relationship among stakeholders and finally show the strategies involved in effective communication.
Research Design and Methodology
This study mainly uses the three naturally occurring data that includes conversation, emails and the corporate artifacts. The approach allows the researcher to give the respondent enough space to give their views. They later analyze the information and draw meaningful conclusions. The qualitative method involves explanations and does not apply statistical values. In this case, the researcher will collect information from managers, workers, and communities (Peräkylä, 2011).
Corporate artifacts are any object that relays information about the human being. It shows the relationship between managers, employees and the community within the enterprise. It also illustrates the function of each, and the attribute of each group. The method was used to extract the data concerning decision making concerning functional structures of an organization which occurs in stable surroundings.
Conversation as a method was used to study interactions among people. In research, the data collected was in the form of a video or audio recording with or without the involvement of a researcher. The method aimed at discovering the pattern of interactions among the members of an organization (Silverman, 2016). The analysis levels the structural conversation for some actions between the managers and workers whereby there is an agreement between the two.
Emails method was used to get online data which was the inexpensive way of gathering information and the fastest method that is less bias. The respondent gave information concerning their work place, task and the time allocated to show accountability.
The method is used to analyze activities of companies such as new opportunities, new policies, the possible area of change and focusing effort. It is used to improve the business activities.
Strength are features of a business that gives a merit over others.
- Availability of trained members
- Flexibility to change
- Strong management skills
- Achievement predicted results
Weakness: are factors of an enterprise that demerit activities from running smoothly
- Little supervision
Opportunities are environmental element that when utilized could be advantageous
- new open market
Threats are the environmental component that could result in problems for business
- stiff competition
- hostile environment
Political factors which show how government influence economy and businesses. They include law, taxes, trade restriction and policy.
Economic significantly affect business operation and decision making. They include inflation rate, economic growth, and interest rate.
Social factors are the cultural and health aspect of a business that affects people they include growth rate, career attitudes, and safety measures.
Technological factors include technological changes and incentives.
Finding and discussion
Characteristic of naturally occurring data
In daily life, naturally occurring data is used for communication purposes to pass information from sender to respondent through media. In short, it is first-hand information and non-research provoked data used by people in their business activities to carry out different transactions. Natural data occurs as qualitative and quantitative (Clancey, 2006). Data collection is specified with the limit of recording and documenting the naturally occurring activity through the recording of interactions.
The data does not leave an unanswered question; people put in categories where their thought and practices show similarities. No problematic conclusion from the collected data can make it open up a variety of issues just like the interview question. It leaves a record of the life of people and how they work to achieve goals through management of task and people.
Structure and characteristic of an organization
Organization structure gives a lead to show how firm activities are carried out efficiently and smoothly and explain the impacts of managers and their decision making.
It involves grouping of activities together regarding approaches such as divisional, network, functional and matrix team. Functional structures categorize tasks according to similarities of functions. The departments include human resource, finance, marketing, accounting and information technology whereby each person has the role of handling the large transaction. Based on Bolman, & Deal, (2017) divisional structures represent services, customers, location of which the company is serving meaning that each service or product produced will have its division.
The departments have subdivision whereby the task assigned to different individuals who are responsible for deciding the allocated areas. In the case of poor organizational performance, the departmental manager involved makes a quick follow up and then act accordingly to curb the challenge. Therefore, departmentalization enables decision making easier in that the manager analysis the performance of each department from which there is the need for an improvement in the achievement of the organizational goal. In a static environment, In contrast, the functional structure may be a challenge when making decisions, especially in a continuously changing environment.
It involves the number of levels a structure has a hierarchy. Maintaining the organ9ization constant tall structures have many layers of control among the employees and the top management while flat structures have only a few strata. In vertical structures, the number of workers who report to their consecutive managers is smaller hence providing better chances for supervision of each employee. Therefore decision making is easier in the kind of structure. On the other hand, flat structures have many employees reporting to specific managers. Managers are somehow not able to ensure maximum supervision hence workers do not perform as expected.
Moreover, where there are advance opportunities they will not handle it properly due to smaller layers of management (Evans, & Davis, 2005). Again the employees do not provide maximum security as would tall structures hence employees do not feel comfortable when working in such structure where their safety mishandled. Poor performance hence result. The decision made is therefore hard to implement.
Policies, job description, rules and procedures of an organization require putting down and writing. In formalizing structures there exist many written instructions which guide employees’ actions making it difficult for employees to make decisions. Whenever a challenge arises workers go back to the rules hence, it is more advantageous for their behaviors are predictable. The factor gives guidelines to employees and reduces ambiguity (Zheng, Yang, & McLean, 2010). The higher the degree of formalization, however, the lower the innovativeness and decision making occur where a crisis develops. The structure reduces motivation but ensures job satisfaction though choice, making speed reduced.
In this category, managers concentrate their power at the top levels and hence decision making a start from there. The companies that use this method make their decision at the top hierarchy unlike in decentralized ones where decisions are easily made to solve problems which are close at hand. In decentralized firms, employees feel more comfortable and hence productive. Decisions are quicker and fair to each employee and hence is more attractive, unlike the centralized system where decisions are dependent on the judgment of the higher managers. Decision making is ineffective in this case.
A stakeholder is an individual, system or organization that affect or is affected by the company’s actions. For practical engagement, there is need to impact the views about their relationship in the body. Stakeholders categorized into two; internal and external. According to Welp, et al., (2006). Internal stakeholders are individuals who engage in resourcing, coordination, funding, and publication of rules from the well-being to the local health of each partnership. They include board of directors, managers, workers, procurement, communication agent, and trustees. External stakeholders are those that contribute their views when addressing issues important to them as members of the community which include suppliers, customers, investors, regulators, funders, media and the government (Kapucu, Arslan, & Demiroz, 2010).
It is crucial for managers to comprehend who get affected by the actions and decisions they come up with and also who can influence their result that affects the stakeholders. Many firms recognize the importance of stakeholder engagement in their roles as drawing the individual into the required place from the beginning so that their ideas, needs, and views can shape those choices and the activities that flow from them (Won Lee, Kwon, & Severance, 2007).
How managers influence the relationship in the organization
Through supervision, they ensure that proper recording of the activities takes place based on each stakeholder, how the information will be used to ensure the goals are achievable by each.
Staff compensation and benefit
Managers after performance analysis discover the ability of each stakeholder through which he gives a reward to those who perform excellently. Compensation engages each stakeholder in a stiff completion whereby each member wants to achieve their best to get the reward hence ensuring good relationship among them.
Training and development
Staff members who perform poorly in their allocated areas may feel ignored making them act even worse. A good manager provides proper training to these individuals to improve their ability in their activities (Roberson, & Park, 2007). The act of willingness to help them makes the employees close to the management team hence improving the relationship among them.
Rules and regulation
A good leader makes several laws that govern the activities of all stakeholders. The rules ensure that the individuals are treated fairly and prevent discrimination among members. The manager provides these regulations are followed by each thus a real relationship enhancement.
Management plan helps in goals accomplishment in various ways:
The roles and responsibility of everybody in the firm are well known by all such that they know what to do and when to do it. All members recognize where to get the information, who supervises them and who to consult in case of any need. There is assurance of good relationship between the top leaders and the workers, and this leads to the achievement of set objectives.
The management plan divides the activities of the organization in a fair and reasonable manner such that the work carried out is feasible and defined. The division helps to prevent conflicts among members who then work comfortably to fulfill company’s desires (King, & Whetten, 2008).
The plan improves accountability among both internal and external members of the organization in that when there is a failure in one of the activities, the one responsible for it is made accountable. A sound management also ensures that the community around it benefits from the activities carried out by the company. The good relationship occurs when some of the community members get employed in the firm, and this creates a sense of ownership to the society thus development. The schedule set for each activity assigned to staffs, payments are given by the services provided, and in the case of problems solutions, and the managers eliminate them as they occur.
Techniques and strategies used to communicate effectively to stakeholders
Communication strategies make the employees authentic, reveal their importance and purpose in the company they work. Communication approaches help to ensure efficient information exchange that will reach the workers and encourage their behaviors to improve results. It is true that stakeholders come from the different locality and therefore have different and distinct cultural values, norms, attitude, and beliefs. Similarly, the stakeholders have different skills, knowledge, and abilities to perform various tasks in the company and for this reason, there raise an issue of job allocation and handling the employer. Understanding the culture of individual employees the manager realizes unique and better communication strategies that are used to engage all the workers to achieve the set goals (Dul, 2012).
Clarity of thoughts implies that idea transmitted must be clear in that when it comes from the manager’s head to ensure that even those with the lowest academic level can understand the spoken word in a meaningful manner. All communication, decisions are better when performed than said. The manager should show that he trusts the workers by making them understand him and how he coordinates the activities such that the subordinate will understand and respect him in his duties (Vallaster, & De Chernatony, 2005).
The manager should ensure every member of the organization takes part in decision making including those in the lowest levels of activities. Communicator carefully transmits information to the workers with a clear context such that everyone understands the communication as it should. The relationship between the manager and the subordinate portrays a feeling of trust and confidence to all categories of workers. Under such situation, the diverse stakeholders feel appreciated, comprehended and are thus satisfied.
The findings suggest that for proper goal achievement managers should be aware of the existence of every employee and good supervision carried out efficiently. The organizational characteristic that hinders effectiveness should deploy to ease decision making. Stakeholders’ effectiveness is dependent on motivation and management thus the leaders involved should ensure their application. Adoption of a two-way communication could be effective instead of using a one-way method, to enhance good communication between organizational members in such a way that every persons’ opinion can be heard and utilized where practical.
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