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Management of Communication

Management Communication

  1. The three environmental cues that influence ones expectation for communication are; scene, setting and contextual expectations of individuals. Environmental cues influence directly or indirectly the behavior and language expectations among participants. For example, in a wedding context, a series of events influence its effectiveness, timing and presentation of rings, cakes and toasts. Although the setting is formal it has a number of informal events intertwined. The scene and setting create a stimulus in which an individual can have high or low expectations.

  2. A business communicator has two responsibilities to the audience; being ethical and being prepared. When the communicator is prepared, they get organized, clear, concise and punctual. Also, an ethical communication is egalitarian, respectful and trustworthy to their audience. On the other hand, the audiences have a responsibility of giving total attention to the speaker. A public speaker recognizes interpersonal and intrapersonal communication and uses engagement strategies to focus on the message. A group normally defers to the speaker in public speaking situations.

  3. I believe that thought influences the use of language. Thought process, as seen from individuals, is the reference point for the object or subject when described in words. For example, a ‘Jaguar’ Land Rover is a reference for a vehicle but with derived meaning for a fierce and powerful carnivorous animal from the jungles of the Amazon basin. When the word ‘Jaguar’ is spoken it symbolizes the object of which the thought of fierceness and power immediately sets in.

  4. Criticism and compliments during communication interactions affect ones sense of self. Oral and written communication has an inclination on expressions and personality and maybe shaped by experiences. For example, Jim can change his self-concept if told that he cannot speak fluently or communicate well in English. Communicating well to the public starts with being able to communicate to oneself. Language and communication can dispel fears and doubts and instill hopes and expectations to individuals. This is possible through mentorship, business communication courses and positive experiences that result in positive change.

  5. In the Readers Digest (2010, March), Heffernan describes ‘One woman who built $400 million trucking business’ The headline is a good attention statement that is inspirational. The introduction part shows the humble beginning of the entrepreneur and her objectives in life. The body is a description of her efforts, failures and successes and notes that the entrepreneur was able to achieve her original objective of employing many Native Americans who were jobless and poor. The conclusion has a sense of closure and highlights that determination is key in achieving one’s goals in life. The residual message is that success comes to those seeking it despite their gender and ethnicity.

  6. Doublespeak is one of the barriers to effective communication and should not be encouraged. It seeks to dilute or divert meaning of the scene or activity. For example, the ongoing military intervention in Syria and Iraq talks of military ‘targets’ to opposition and Islamic State operatives. Use of doublespeak obscures the meaning of ‘target’ as residential buildings with humans, mainly children and women, inside. The global audience will fail to raise attention to the intervention due to change in meaning and perception.

  7. Signposts are used by the speaker to indicate the points being made or signal change. Common signposts are; for example, in conclusion, and to illustrate. Audience once tired of a long speech will be relieved when they hear ‘as I conclude’, meaning that the speech is coming to an end. For instance, an analyzing of malnutrition in Indian children under five years uses a number of signposts (Sahu, et al., 2015). The authors use ‘On the other hand’ to show that few studies have attempted to study obesity in the same population. This shows that the authors intended to divert attention from the theme of malnutrition a little bit.

  8. While language can help one to communicate, jargons may create misunderstanding or miscommunication. Reuters News carried an article in 2014 about air traffic failure in the US, and used jargons like ‘ERAM systems’, ‘GPS’ and ‘altitude discrepancy’. These authors did not explain the former but made an attempt to explain GPS as Global Positioning system for location search while ERAM is En Route Automation Modernization. I think they could have explained further their application to the layman to help them understand their meaning.

  9. Self-concept plays a huge role in communication, both spoken and written. In writing, a person with healthy self-image and self-esteem will use positive messages and encouraging words. For example, a job applicant with good self-esteem will write in her diary that ‘I failed the interview because I was not prepared, if I prepare well next time I will be the next accountant in Lyods Bank’. This shows that self-concept can influence an individual to go with certain words can give hope, encouragement, patience and higher expectations.

  10. The field of psychology provides that when people are encouraged, their potential and the way they see oneself is influenced. In the psychology experiment, it is argued that public school teachers who randomly picked students and encouraged them found that they excelled. Indeed, non-verbal and verbal encouragement unconsciously communicates special messages to the students to perform better. Defined as the ‘Pygmalion effect’, a strong belief in an individual that they can meet or fail in their expectations is base on appropriate encouragement and attention.

  11. Perception is the mental roadmap of strategies, beliefs, experiences and values. Previous experiences and new expectations limit ones perception of reality at that moment. The case identifies assumptions and a set of expectations as a guide in achieving anything different form the past. It is possible to apply or predict ones mental template to think of the future or what might happen. For example, an employee called to meet the manager at his office may run a number of possible reasons for the meeting. These expectations will affect the perceptions of the employee.

  12. The common listening styles are; people, action, content and time. Regarding benefits, the listener becomes more attentive to the speaker rather than the message. The audience seeks to obtain more compelling messages than more detailed underlying reasons. Moreover, listeners not only get well-developed information that has solid explanations but also message content and not its length. On the contrary, people may not get the actual message of the speaker and in-depth details due to time constraints. Also, a speaker may omit important limitations or audience exhibit inappropriate behaviors such as checking on their mobile phones.

  13. Psychological noise is the interference of own thoughts during reading, messaging or hearing. To reduce this noise, I have developed a number of strategies. First, I read very attentively to understand the message. Second, I try my best to eliminate the source of interference such as anger, discomfort in sitting and non-conducive work station. Third, I have set the volume of my mobile phone ringtone to reasonable levels so as not to interfere with other people’s attention. Fourth, I have also learned to concentrate on the message and avoid distraction from the surroundings.

  14. The text message in the case uses colloquial language or informal conversational writing. However, it has regional phrases, slang and colorful expressions that is not fit for formal settings. For example, in p. 137 of the case, the text uses ‘fwiw’ instead of ‘fine’, ‘n’ instead of ‘and’ and ‘thxs’ instead of ‘thanks’. This is not suitable for professor-student communication as it is not standard in university formal communication. Such communication requires use more words, long sentences and subordinate clauses. The expectation of this communication type requires a check on spelling, grammar, and polite salutation that reflect the formality of the academic environment.

  15. Two audiences are considered; company board of directors and a group briefing on a rock climbing exercise. In the first case, the style is tense and use of language to depict professionalism and prestige. For example, when presenting the annual financial report to the directors, the speaker may use words like ‘Our Company’, ‘Our esteemed customers’ ‘Allow me to’ and ‘Excuse Me’. On the contrary, the rock climbing exercise will have the team leader casual saying ‘hey guys’, ‘what’s up dude’ and ‘keep moving buddy’. The latter case is relaxed and fluid while the former is formal, strict and careful.

  16. A sales letter to animal product distributors in Saudi Arabia may read:

“We process goat meat and beef to target more than two million consumers in Riyadh and Jeddah. Our sales force has seven men who conduct sales whole year round except during Ramadan”.

From the letter, the message sends two signals as type of animal product and gender representation in the sales force. Some elements in this letter may not augur well in the country. First, Saudi Arabia is predominantly Muslim and most of its citizens do not eat meat from pigs. Second, the country employs men to work and prefer that women stay at home.

  1. Letter to new client

“Dear Mr. Smith,


Today is the D-day!! You won’t miss to drink our new 500ml Yogo Yogurt with fine taste, no sugar and low fat. You need it to brighten your morning and feel the world around you. With only $5.99 you will have what you have missed whole your life. I welcome you to our stores in Eastwood drive, Parklore Building. We have great staff who will respond to all concerns about Yogo.

Sales Manager, Yogo”.

  1. I would like to establish a security company for 24-hour security services. The target customers are Union Bank, Plymouth University and Norwich East night club. Union bank requires cameras, CCTV and customer control while Plymouth University requires gate control personnel, protection of student interests and university property. Norwich nightclub needs to secure its patrons, control tensions and guide any altercations. In that case, my security firm will employ people with physical strength, ability to detect theft, inspect bags and vehicles and good communication skills with the police, company management and other security personnel.

  2. Longer resume is justified when additional relevant and specific information is necessary to represent a number of years of experience and professional development. Ordinarily, a resume is a one-page document that provides accurate, concise and clear information about the job applicant. This resume captures one experience, education and skills of the job seeker. One page format is recommended but extending to more than one page should only be done to append additional information that directly relate to the position.

  3. One becomes a better speaker by learning more about his or her audience. In the ‘Iceberg model’ majority of the iceberg is below the water surface, which indicates that a speaker needs to go beyond gender, ethnicity, race and age to understand the audience. For example, one may have to tailor communication to capture motivations, interests, needs and identity of the diverse audience. In intercultural communication, engaging diverse audience requires the speaker to know the size of audience, prior knowledge on topic, time of presentation, their relation to the message and visual aids.

  4. It is appropriate to consider a rhetorical situation where one reflects or revises the original document to help develop one that is acceptable to the audience. The revision process captures the rhetorical situation, audience and content awareness and considers the basic elements; when, what, why and who. For example, sales research paper findings may differ from the original thoughts which demand a reconsideration of rhetorical situation. Leaving enough time before deadline and developing rough drafts helps to query findings and reflect on them.

  5. Separating audience based on needs and their level of understanding is critical. Speaking a mature audience about tattoos to children is not similar to talking about it to mature college students. For example, to the children, the speaker may have to use the word ‘color’ and ‘shapes’ which relate to children drawings. On the other hand, words like ‘cool’, ‘type’ and ‘cost’ of the tattoo can be discussed among college students. Moreover, college students can don their tattoos as they wish but not young children. A disclaimer is also used when describing a tattoo to the children that they should ‘not try it at home’.

  6. Ethics during presentation is necessary as the speaker is able to perceive others as humans with common needs and interests. An ethical speaker avoids prejudiced comments, shows respect for the listeners and is honest on the information presented. For example, a sales representative may have to present accurate sales but not to exaggerate for the sake of pleasing the sales manager. Again, if the speaker does not know or understand something, it is only reasonable to admit. An ethical communication helps in meeting needs of the presenter, customers and building companywide relationships.

  7. The five main structural elements of a speech are; attention statement, introduction, body, conclusion and residual message. In 7th October 2015, the Independent carried the speech made by David Cameron at the Tory Party Conference The speech attention statement is ‘home ownership, immigration and extremism’. The introductory part captures his feelings, that of his party and the British people. The body highlights party changes, greater Britain, conservative values, national security, migration, extremism, home ownership and social reforms. The conclusion is an encouragement and motivation to the British people. The residual message is Britain to collectively harness their security, chances and hope.

  8. The two organizing principles are; problem and solution, and time. Regarding problem and solution, the speech outline reads:

“The advent of mobile phones increased the communication speed, money transfer and social networking among people. Earlier, people took more than a week to receive money on traditional means. Mobile phone revolution has been a solution at the right time”.

On time, the speech outline can read as:

“Before mobile phone revolution, many people especially in the rural settings could not communicate with friends and relatives in the cities. This revolution has impacted on the social, economic and cultural aspects of rural population”.

Article links

Heffernan, M. (2010, March 15) How One Woman Built a $400 million trucking business. Readers Digest.

Sahu, S.S., Kumar, S.G., Premarajan, K.C., Sarkar, S., Roy, G. & Nitin, J. (2015). Malnutrition among under-five children in India and strategies for control. Journal of Natural Sciences and Biological Medicine, 6(1): 18-23.

The Independent (2015, October 7). Tory Party Conference: David Cameron’s Speech.