Management and Organisational Behaviour Essay Example

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    Undergraduate
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Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR — HRMM055

Executive Summary:

Organizational behavior refers to the observation of the individual or group behavior in accordance with the expectations or demands of the organization in question. According to (McShane, Olekalns and Travaglione, 2010), organizational behaviour refers to the exploration and assessment of what people think, how they feel and what they do in and around organization. Organizational behavior is essential in assessing employee behaviour, choices, perception and emotional reactions. Moreover, organizational behavior plays a critical role in examining how persons, as well as teams in administrations related to each other and their counterparts on other organizations. OB also incorporates the evaluationof how organizations interact with their external environments, particularity in the contexts of employee behaviour and decision. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and explore two critical elements of organizational behavior: attitudes and job satisfactions in relation to the motivation among workers in pursuit of the organizational goals and targets. The paper will incorporate one of the motivational theories with reference to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. Consequently, it is ideal for the employer to adopt and incorporate appropriate strategies, which have positive implications on the attitudes of the employees, as well as improved satisfactions concerning their jobs.

Introduction:

Organizational behavior is one of the critical concepts in the modern society. Organizational behavior tends to incorporate two elements. In the first instance, there is the concept of organization, which refers to a group of people aiming at working towards realization of a common goal with the collective efforts. Organizations tend to operate through coordination and delegation among the group members. Delegation proves to be ideal in the allocation of the group members with equal work in accordance to their capability and coordination in pursuit of the organizational goal and target. Alternatively, there is the concept of behavior, which is the verbal or physical response by the individual in accordance with his or her surrounding or environment.

From this perspective, organizational behavior refers to the observation of the individual or group behavior in accordance with the expectations or demands of the organization in question. One of the critical aspects of organizational behavior is motivation. Motivation tends to play a critical role in the determination of the goals and performance of the employees. In the determination of the motivational aspects of the employees, it is ideal to consider assessment of the attitudes and job satisfactions. On one hand, attitudes relate to the favourable or unfavourable evaluative statements regarding people, events, and objects or products, as well as services.

Some of the components of attitudes include cognitive, affective, and behavioural, which enjoy close relationships. On the other hand, job satisfaction comes out as a form of attitude, which relates to the collection of positive or negative feelings of an individual holding towards his or her job. These two critical components of motivation will form the basis of this discussion, thus, the platform for understanding the influence of attitudes and job satisfactions on motivation of the workers in pursuit of competitive edge and sustainability.

Analysis

Attitudes and job Satisfactions

Attitudes refer to the favourable or unfavourable evaluative statements regarding people, events, and objects or products, as well as services. Some of the components of attitudes include cognitive, affective, and behavioural, which enjoy close relationships. On the other hand, job satisfaction comes out as a form of attitude, which relates to the collection of positive or negative feelings of an individual holding towards his or her job (Pinder, 2014).

Attitudes and job satisfaction are very useful to managers. Management aims at creation of valuable environment for the improvement of the volume of production by the employees in addressing the organisational needs and expectations. From this perspective, attitudes and job satisfaction come out as components of ideal environment for the employees to prosper at the workplace. Moreover, managers have the ability and potentiality to use these aspects of motivation in the determination of the motivational levels of the employees in the improvement of the performance levels and productivity volumes (Pinder, 2014).

Motivation

Motivation is «whatever it is that pushes my hot button to change what I’m doing,» says Bob Lenburg, president of Human Resources Group, a human resources consulting company in Madison, Wis. «The most powerful motivators don’t have to do with money, but being part of it.» «If you bring together some of Maslow and some of Herzberg it starts to reflect» the idea that money and benefits are not necessarily good motivators, Lenburg says. «If they’re there they may be taken for granted. Evidently, their absence is a demotivator. What are pursued are higher-level needs.» (Hochgraf, 1997)

Simply put, motivation can be traced from the internal energy of an employee, launching a person’s eagerness to achieve and sets a path for its course, magnitude and perseverance. (Hochgraf, 1997)

Attitudes and job satisfactions are useful to the organisations because of their influence in the employee performance and overall organisational productivity. Attitudes and job satisfaction contribute to the motivation of the employees in pursuit of competitive advantage (Pinder, 2014). In this context, it is ideal for the business entities and managers to adopt and implement positive and valuable strategies, which relates to positive attitudes or feelings among the employees on their roles and responsibilities in accordance with the demands of the consumers. Additionally, these motivational elements of the organizational behaviour are critical in the creation of effective work-life balance.

There are various motivational theories, which are critical and relevant to the attitudes and job satisfaction. One of such motivational theories is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs focuses on illustration of five basic categories of needs, which are essential in the motivation of behaviors of the employees in pursuit of the organizational goals and targets. As employees satisfy one need, they tend to move up the hierarchical structure with the next motivating factor becoming the central focus of the person’s behavior. The five psychological levels are physiological needs, security needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Some of the basic or physiological needs for the motivation of individuals include need for water, food, air, and sleep. These needs are vital for survival of the individuals (Jerome, 2013). According to Maslow, these needs are the most basic, as well as instinctive needs within the hierarchy because all needs tend to be secondary prior to the satisfaction of the physiological needs.

The second level of needs relate to the security requirements, which enable employees to exploit safety and security products. The needs are valuable for survival, but less demanding in comparison to the physiological needs. Some of the examples of these needs include desire for steady employment, quality health care, safe location, and valuable shelter from adverse environment. The third set of needs relate to the social requirements under the influence of conceptions such as belonging, love, and affection. According to Maslow, these needs are less basic in comparison to the previous set of needs (Toor, 2011). Nevertheless, these needs are critical in motivating employees towards the achievement of collective goals and targets.

The fourth set of needs in this theory is esteem needs, which become increasingly crucial in motivating employees. The esteem needs are evident in self-esteem, social recognition, personal worth, and accomplishment of the employees while executing their roles and responsibilities (Avneet, 2013). The final set of rules is the self-actualizing needs, which is the highest level of the hierarchy of needs in relation to Maslow’s theory. In this context, individuals become concerned with self-awareness, personal growth, less concentration on perception of others, and increased importance in achievement of full potentiality.

Motivation proves to be important in the determination of attitudes and job satisfaction. Motivation influences the volume and concentration levels of the employees in pursuit of the organisational goals and targets. In the course of motivating the employees, it is vital for the employers and managers to engage in the provision or creation of appropriate working conditions, which will enhance the performance levels of the organisation and its employees (Pinder, 2014). The knowledge on this topic is essential in understanding the role and influence of motivation on the performance of the employees, as well as organisational behaviour. Acquisition of this knowledge is essential in the maximization of the production levels through generative of positive feelings and job satisfaction among the workers seeking to address the demands and expectations of the employees.

Organizational Behaviour

Before explaining the reason behind studying organizational behaviour, first, will try to understand the meaning of the concept.

(McShane, Olekalns and Travaglione, 2010) Defined organizational behaviourIs the study of what people think, feel and do in and around organization. It looks at employee behaviour, decisions, perception and emotional responses. It examines how individuals and teams in organizations related to each other and their counterparts on other organizations. OB Also encompasses the study of how organizations interact with their external environments, particularity in the contexts of employee behaviour and decision”

Fresh students tend to ignore the importance of OB unlike those experienced graduate who are aware of how studying this subject can benefit their future also, OB tend to have a direct link with career success.

OB has many theories that can be used to manage the workplace. Those theories help building a safe & healthy environment for employees and managers.

The knowledge of OB theories proved to play a major role in every person’s life as it helps in increasing employee’s efficiency through providing them with the necessary tools that enhances the professional environment, motivates employees, builds team performance and solves conflicts.

Attitudes and job satisfaction prove to be ideal in the determination of the behaviour and perception of the employee in accordance with the goals and targets of the company. Categorically, these HRM elements are vital in the illustration of the importance of motivation and organisational behaviour in the determination of the perceptions and behaviours of the employees in pursuit of competitive advantage in the market and industry of operation (Cho and Perry, 2012). From this perspective, it is ideal for the organisation to adopt and implement appropriate motivational models in the course of improving the performance volumes of the workers in valuable working conditions.

Attitudes and job satisfaction tends to have huge implications and influences on the motivation and organisational behaviour. In the modern society, Human Recourse Management (HRM) comes out as the most important element of success in various business entities or corporations. It is the obligation of the management to motivate their employees in pursuit of the goals and targets. This is through developing or generating positive attitudes and feelings among the employees in relation to appropriate organisational behaviour in pursuit of competitive advantage and sustainability (Judge and Kammeyer-Mueller, 2012).

Conclusion:

Conclusively, the essay focused on the evaluation of two critical elements of organizational behavior: attitudes and job satisfactions in relation to the motivation among workers in pursuit of the organizational goals and targets. The paper did highlight one of the motivational theories with reference to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. Categorically, it is ideal for the employer to adopt and incorporate appropriate strategies, which have positive implications on the attitudes of the employees, as well as improved satisfactions concerning their jobs. The approaches are vital in the illustration of improved motivation of the employees in pursuit of enhanced output.

List of References

Avneet Kaur, 2013, “Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory: Applications and Criticisms.” Global Journal of Management and Business Studies, 3 (10), 1061-1064.

Cho, Y.J. and Perry, J.L., 2012, “Intrinsic motivation and employee attitudes role of managerial trustworthiness, goal directedness, and extrinsic reward expectancy,” Review of Public Personnel Administration, 32(4), pp.382-406

DeShields Jr, O.W., Kara, A. and Kaynak, E., 2005, “Determinants of business student satisfaction and retention in higher education: applying Herzberg’s two-factor theory,” International journal of educational management, 19(2), pp.128-139.

Federici, R.A. and Skaalvik, E.M., 2012, “Principal self-efficacy: Relations with burnout, job satisfaction and motivation to quit,” Social Psychology of Education, 15(3), pp.295-320.

Hochgraf, Lisa , 1997. What is motivation?. Credit Union Management, 20, 1

Hülsheger, U.R., Alberts, H.J., Feinholdt, A. and Lang, J.W., 2013, “Benefits of mindfulness at work: the role of mindfulness in emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(2), p.310.

Jerome, N 2013, “Application of the Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory: impacts and implications on organizational culture, human resource, and employee’s performance.” International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2 (3), 39-45.

Judge, T.A. and Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D., 2012, “Job attitudes,” Annual review of psychology, 63, pp.341-367

Kim, B.N., Kim, S. and Heo, C.Y., 2015, “An application of Herzberg’s two-factor theory on online hotel reviews”

McShane, Olekalns and Travaglione, Steven,Mara and Tony, 2010. Organisational behaviour on the Spcific Rim. 3rd ed. Australia : Alisa Brackleydubois

Pinder, C.C., 2014. Work motivation in organizational behavior. Psychology Press

Toor, S. 2011, “Differentiating leadership from management: An empirical investigation of leaders and managers.” Leadership and Management in Engineering, 11(4), 310-320.