Management and organisation (media articles) Essay Example

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<Essay Title>

<Lecturer’s Name and Course Number>

Steps in the decision making process.

Decision making is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values of the decision maker. It involves the following steps;

  • Problem identification: Involves the process of identifying the problem at hand and putting on measures to curb the problem.

  • Generate and evaluate alternative solutions

  • Selection of a alternative solution and conduct ethics double check

  • Implementation of an alternative solution

  • Evaluation of decision effectiveness

Approaches that can be taken in decision making

Approaches taken in decision making include;

  1. Systematic thinking approach.

This is a process that approaches problems in a rational and analytical way. This approach teds to break down complex problems into much smaller components and the management tends to come up with a plan. The management deals with the problems in a logical and integrated approach, he/she is required to select alternatives rationally and consistently.

  1. Intuitive thinking approach

It is a method of approach that tends to approach a problem in a flexible and spontaneous way. The management makes decisions on the basis of experience, feelings, values and accumulated judgments. The management responds imaginatively and deals with many aspects of the problem at once. The management considers ideas based o experience or spontaneous ideas.

Types of decision and decision making problems faced by managers

Types of decisions include;

  1. Programmed decision

It is a decision that is mainly used to handle structured problems. It is a repetitive decision that can be handled using a routine approach.

  1. Non programmed decision

It is a unique and non-recurring decision that requires a custom made solution by the management in order to solve problems emerging in the organization. It is mainly used to solve unstructured problems in the organization since it can resolve issues quickly.

Types of problems

Types of problems that occur during decision making include;

  1. Structured problems

These are straight forward, familiar and easily defined problems which can be handled without any difficulty.

  1. Unstructured problems

These are problems that result from ambiguous or irrelevant information which may mislead the management. Include investing in new technology and machinery.

Environment types

  1. Certain environment

  • complete information re possible action alternatives and their consequences

  • Risk environment

    • lacks complete information but offers probabilities re likely outcomes of possible actions

  • Uncertain environment

    • lacks much information and difficult to assign probabilities re outcomes of possible actions

    Identify some decisions that managers may make concerning the principal functions of management?

    • Planning decisions

    These are decisions that are made toward

      • What are the organisation’s long term objectives?

      • What should the organisation’s short term objectives be?

      • How difficult should individual goals be?

      • Organising decisions

      • How much centralisation should there be?

      • How should jobs be designed?

      • When should we implement a new structure?

    • Leading decisions

      • How will I deal with low motivation?

      • What is the most effective leadership style in a given situation?

      • When is it appropriate to delegate more?

      • Controlling decisions

      • What activities need to be controlled?

      • How should the activities be controlled?

      • When is a performance deviation significant?

    Is there a difference between wrong decisions and bad decisions? Why do good managers sometimes make wrong decisions?

    • There could be a difference between wrong and bad decisions

      • good managers can sometimes make choices due to inadequate information, biases or a lack of education or experience

      • bad decisions could be based on haste, emotion and other possible reasons

      • Managers decision making skills could be improved through

      • use of research

      • experience

      • reduction in bias

      • asking others for support

    How might national culture influence a managers decision style?

    • National culture is likely to influence a manager’s decision style by influencing their references about the way decisions are made

      • Participatively by a group

      • autocratically by an individual manager

      • the degree of risk a decision maker is willing to make

    • A manager’s decision how decisions are made will influence how they gather information

      • how much information they gather

      • whether they adopt an autocratic style

      • how they generate alternatives

      • how they implement decisions

      • A manager’s preference for the degree of risk taken will influence whether they

      • adopt a short term or long term orientation

      • delegate decisions or retain decision control

      • how creative they are


    Hicks, H. and Gullett, C. (1981). Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Inman, M. (1983). Organisation & management. London: Financial Training.

    Organisation & management. (1990). BPP Pub.

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