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Reflective Journal for Communication Management


A1. Environmental cues serve as indicators of communication, which allow participants to act and respond in certain appropriate ways in the interaction process. The first environmental cue is the distance between two or more participants. Physical distance is a good indicator for evaluating the manner in which two or more people will interact (Roberts, 2010). A close physical distance may indicate a more intimate relationship than a larger physical distance. Another environmental cue is eye contact. Lack of eye contact will indicate a reluctance or lack of self-confidence among the participants while consistent eye contact may indicate that a person is genuine and eager to communicate with others. Another environmental cue is the use of non-verbal communication such as hand gestures, smile, and fidgeting.

A2. The communication process has two main types of participants, namely the speaker and listener. Both types of participants have a responsibility in making communication a success in terms of giving and receiving messages effectively (Faculty of Business, Government & Law, n.d). The communicator has a responsibility in ensuring that the message provided is received in a way that is concise and easily understood. As such, he or she may need to use other non-verbal and illustrative means of communication to achieve this. He or she also needs to ensure that the message is communicated in a sincere and passionate way, making it easier to pass the message (Ricci, 2012). On the other hand, the listener has a responsibility to ensure that the message received is decoded and interpreted effectively. This means that the listener need not only hear but also understand the purpose of communicating this message.

A3. Thought influences the use of language through influencing an individual’s perception. In the same way, the language a person uses will influence that way they think. The use of language will often translate into a form of individual culture developing, which allows the use of words as a tool of effective communication. It allows people to view language as a tool for expression of thoughts, ideas, and other types of information. An individual’s perception of ideas will also influence the language they use to make descriptions, criticisms, praise, admiration, or contempt, among several others (Ricci, 2012). As such, it can be said that an individual has thought process will influence their attitude, which will in turn affect the language used to speak about the specific issues.

A4. Language affects self-concept in a significant way. An individual is able to determine traits of him or herself through the ability to use language to make definitions, descriptions, and even formation of personal ideas. An individual will be able to use language as a tool for self-expression and determination. The use of language is also intertwined with the ability to not only define an individual but also in the way he or she forms inter personal relationships with others as a means to affirm their identity.

A5. The article The Overwhelming Barriers to Successful Immigration Reform by Daniel Tichenor covers the intricacies involved in the process of implementing effective legislations on reforms in America. The headline offers a reader a comprehensive idea of what to expect while reading the paper (Tichenor, 2016). The sense of closure provided within the article is not provided, as their purpose was to present a reader with a rhetoric in which careful evaluations are still underway. However, the author does provide a reader with possible outcomes of events should they unfold in certain ways in the future. Within the article, the main points are presented in each paragraph, and supported from primary and secondary sources, which serve as evidence to bolster the argument.

A6. Double speak has been regarded as a source of barrier to effective communication in the past. Most of the people who use double speak, especially politicians, do it purposefully to avoid answering questions directly or to turn a negative object or idea into a positive one or vice versa. However, I believe that the use of double speak is a huge barrier to communication, especially if people do not understand the context or euphemisms used therein. It can lead to misunderstandings, which are likely to breed conflict among communicating parties. For instance, a person may say “comfort women” to refer to women who were forced into sexual slavery during the Second World War.

A7. The use of signposts in this article allows the communicator to employ effective strategies for transition from one topic to another. Words such as moreover and furthermore are used to provide more information on a topic while words such as winding up and to conclude are used to show listeners that the discussion will be coming to an end within a few moments.

A8. The article What exactly is a rocket scientist? By Shawlin discusses the basic information involved in the profession and functionalities of rocket science and engineering (Shawnlin, 2008). Although the term rocket science is actually frequently stated, the author of the article clearly outlines the specific definitions in a way that is clearly understood by people who do not study in the field. In order to make a reader better understand some of these terms, the author has used practical examples to elaborate on these definitions.

A9. How people see themselves will determine their language and therefore their own writing. My self-concept involves a process of forming beliefs, opinions, attitudes and mentally organizing them in a way that allows me to manifest it in the form of communication to others. I see myself as an ever-evolving individual in terms of proficiency in writing, and am therefore able to allow myself to improve on mistakes illustrated through faults in writing communication.

A10. Our individual beliefs and actions cause us to predict certain events, which actually come to pass, according to the self-fulfilling prophecy in psychology. Through certain attitudes and perceptions of the way things happen, a person is likely to act in a way that makes it happen, even if it was not their intention. For instance, if a person thinks they will fall while walking, they are likely to walk in a way that will make them trip, such as dragging the leg or walking in areas where the ground is not level.

A11. According to the author, the process of understanding can result in being able to gain further insight into a sense of awareness (78). This sense of awareness is what will cause an individual to pay attention to or take specific actions in response to events. A sense of understanding will also change that way through which people perceive experiences differently, even if the exact events occurred. As such, it is possible for an individual to gain a deeper sense of understanding, which in turn expands their views on ideas and issues presented.

A12. The listening styles elaborated in the book contemporary Public Speaking includes pseudo, appreciative, empathetic, comprehensive, and critical. Pseudo listening does not allow a listener to internalize what the speaker is saying, and is merely hearing and sounding attentive (Bovée, 2003). In appreciative listening, a speaker will listen attentively only to receive a specific set of information which serves to achieve their goals. While this type of listening allows a listener to gain specific knowledge, they are likely to not grasp the rest of the information, which may be important. Empathetic listening involves focusing a person with emotions of empathy and compassion. While this type of listening is important because it serves to seek further understanding, a listener may be more of a subjective rather than an objective listener. Comprehensive listening seeks to gain understanding from all that the speaker is saying. As such, a listener may often focus on less important words and pay less attention to the more important ones. While critical listening allows a person to be shrewder in the process of analysis of facts and information, they are less likely to employ human emotions of empathy and understanding.

A13. Some of the strategies I have employed in an effort to minimize the psychological noise is through dealing with underlying psychological issues before embarking on listening to important information. This allows me to ease the burden of mental distractions. Another way I have dealt with these issues is setting time to deal with underlying issues as a means of mental organization. As such, I am able to relax knowing that any pending issues will be dealt with in a specific and timely manner.

A14. Some of the normative expectations of professor-student communication include use of formal language to convey information. I was able to learn this through conventional practices as well as institutional policies concerning the nature of relationships between students and teachers.

A15. The intended audience will have an effect on the manner in which a communicator will convey messages. Even with similar information to be relayed, the speaker will need to take into account the type of audience, their language proficiency, as well as level of learning in the process of communicating (Herd, 2013). For instance, a speaker will use simple and high frequency words in communicating with children in elementary school, and use technical, low frequency vocabulary when speaking to students in college.

A16. The message is tailored for an African audience and market through the use of selected phrases which have the most appeal to this culture. Aside from carrying out effective market research, it is important to know the specific areas in which the greatest appeal will be brought out.

A17. Draft letter of introduction of a new product:

The online market service will allow an efficient connection between a vendor and seller of goods and services. It is not only time and energy saving, but also reduces the hassle and need for physical presence in the process of purchasing goods and services. As such, this online platform serves as a social and economic bridge to the fast rising markets within the region.

A18. The product I would like to offer is artifacts in the form of artistic paintings and home accessories. The three companies that I would like to sell these items include the Smithsonian American Art Museum, The New Renwick Store, and Fine Art Prints. The Smithsonian Art Museum consists of a wide array of permanent collection, specific exhibitions, and decorative items such as jewelry, books, posters, and toys, among many other items. The Renwick Store has successfully sold beautifully designed home accessories and finishing including handmade gifts, ceramics, textiles, glass, and books, among several other items. Fine Art Prints has sold a large collection of canvas prints, posters, metal prints, framed prints, greeting cards, and acrylic accessories, among many others.

A19. A resume is used to represent professional and educational experience in a concise format which allows someone to gain relevant information in the shortest time possible (353). As such, employers often require a resume to be an average of a single page of well-spaced and well-written information. A longer resume can be justified when a candidate has had extensive work or educational experience or both. In order for information of qualifications and achievements to fit, a candidate may have to extend their resume to two or three pages (Roberts, 2010). In addition, an employer may seek to establish specific information within a resume, which may require further elaboration on certain subjects. In this case, a candidate may find himself or herself writing a longer resume.

A20. Preparing a speech for a diverse audience can be challenging for a speaker. As such, it is important for a speaker to prepare adequately through finding out the types of listeners he or she expects to interact with. It is also important to frame ideas and information that is likely to be more accepted within this diverse group of people. it is also important for a speaker to distinguish between giving facts and opinions. The speaker also needs to communicate to audience that the specific differences in social, cultural, political, racial, ethnic, or other forms of diversity and their respective opinions are merely different but do not have a hierarchal structure in superiority or inferiority. For instance, speakers who a talk about Christianity in a diverse religious group needs to take into account the opinions and even criticisms from other religions.

A21. It is important to consider a rhetorical situation in communication involves a phenomenon characterized by three main aspects namely an issue, and audience, and a set of constraints. These three characteristics are the basis of conversations which serve to address specific social, cultural, economic, and even political issues (Roberts, 2010). It allows participants to engage in the process of critical analysis where all factors are considered and solutions are established. A rhetorical situation will clearly outline a problem, affected parties, alternative solutions, and even ways through which such a problem can be avoided in the future.

A22. I would adapt my topic for an audience of middle school children through use of simple language which encourages engagement and participation. The topic of tattoos will be approached through use of specific and informative ways in which students will gain further information on the biological process of gaining tattoos. On the other hand, when speaking to college students, some of the topics of interest would include their experiences with tattoos, their opinions in tattoos, the social and cultural significance, as well as health effects. I would frame these topics in order to help them gain a better understanding of the historical meaning of tattoos rather than just descriptions of their physical appearances.

A23. Organizing a presentation involves the use of ethics. This is because a speaker has a responsibility to convey information in a clear and concise manner (Iftakhar, 2013). A speaker’s role is to ensure the nature of the audience in terms of attitudes concerning a topic, level of comprehension, as well as its significance to them.

A24. The speech “I have a dream” was delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr in 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC. Dr. Luther King introduces the speech through making an introductory remark (American Rhetoric, 2016). The speaker uses a somber tone, which serves to illustrate his mood in delivering the message. The speaker then develops consistently in the speech through offering informative facts about the context of his speech. He emphasizes the importance of the day, location, and content of his remarks. Dr. King also delivers this speech in brilliance and clarity, in a way that is understood. There exists no communication barriers such as double speak and other forms of ambiguity. It is difficult for any listener to mistake his stand on his political, social, and economic views, which he mostly focused on.

A25. A technology that has had a significant influence in my world is the microwave.

Short sample outline for speeches would include:

Introduction of the Microwave – state the name of the inventor, date, technological experience

Background – State the underlying issue that propelled its invention

Effect – state how it has affected people around the world through inclusion of statistical information.

State the negative and positive effects

Personal effect- State how it has had an individual effect in my life.


American Rhetoric, 2016, Martin Luther King I Have a Dream Speech — American Rhetoric. [online] Americanrhetoric.com. Available at: http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm [Accessed 23 Jun. 2016].

Bovée, C, 2003, Contemporary public speaking, San Diego: Collegiate Pub. Group.

Faculty of Business, Government & Law, Contemporary public speaking 1st Ed. University of Canberra. n.d.

Herd, N., 2013, Public Speaking. Community Literacy Journal, 8(1), pp.91-92.

Iftakhar, S., 2013, Teaching Speaking Through Public Speaking Course, Stamford J Eng, 7(0).

Ricci, T, 2012, Public Speaking: Know your audience, ASME.org

Roberts, P, 2010, Professionally Speaking Public speaking for health professionals. Physiotherapy, 86(5), pp.274-275.

Root, G., 2016, Six elements of organizational structure. Chronicles.

Shawnlin, J, 2008, What exactly is a rocket scientist? — Forums. [online] CNET. Available at: http://www.cnet.com/forums/discussions/what-exactly-is-a-rocket-scientist-311313/ [Accessed 23 Jun. 2016].

Tichenor, D, 2016, The Overwhelming Barriers to Successful Immigration Reform. [online] The Atlantic. Available at: http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/05/replicating-lbjs-immigration-success/483908/ [Accessed 23 Jun. 2016].