LITERATURE REVIEW 1

  • Category:
    Nursing
  • Document type:
    Assignment
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
  • Page:
    3
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    1713

Literature Review: Early-Life Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries

Literature Review: Early-Life Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries

Search Strategy

Data Sources: The evidence-based electronic databases attributing to PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, BIOSIS, Web of Science, PMC, Google Scholar, LILACS, Cochrane Library and BIOSIS explored for accessing the feeding practices among infants and children and their affect on the dental health of the target population.

Search Keywords: The primary search terms attributed to “early feeding practices”, “childhood caries”, “infant feeding caries”, “parental feeding knowledge and childhood caries”, “child feeding caries”, “early life feeding caries” and “early childhood caries”.Other search terms included “young feeding and caries”, feeding and caries”, “complementary feeding and dental caries”, “suboptimal infant and children feeding” and “optimal infant feeding and caries”.

Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria

  • Qualitative and cross-sectional studies that emphasize the pattern of relationship between the influence of early life feeding practices and development of dental caries during the early stages of childhood, selected for undertaking the literature review.

  • Qualitative studies that attribute to the organization of a semi structured interview sessions as well as observational studies and literature reviews for exploring the data analysis findings and inferences in relation to the feeding interventions among children and the pattern of dental caries.

  • Studies related to the feeding practices of adults and young adults and their relationship with dental caries excluded from the research review.

  • Studies related to the feeding practices of elderly patients and the development of dental decay and caries summarily excluded from the search criteria.

Flow – Chart

Records explored for the assessment of “early feeding practices” and “childhood caries” and “infant feeding caries” (n=565+1632+1507 = 3704)

(n=15, 000)

Records explored with the effective assistance from other data sources

Early-Life Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries:Early-Life Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: 1

(n = 1734) & (n=3512)

Records identified for their inclusion in the literature review

Early-Life Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: 2

(n=550) & (n=1115)

Records filtered after exclusion of duplicates

Complete cross-sectional and qualitative studies emphasizing limited pattern of reciprocal relationship between childhood feeding practices and establishment and progression of dental caries (n=49) & (n=437)

Early-Life Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: 3

Early-Life Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: 4

Assessment of the impact of early feeding practices on the pattern of oral health explored with the final inclusion of 126 cohort and 312 cross-sectional studies in the literature review

Evidence on the Subject

  • Increase in the quantity of publications on the subject of early feeding practices and their influence on early childhood caries increased considerably with the course of time; however, the research methods in various publications evidentially differ from each other, thereby warranting the prospective execution of longitudinal and quantitative studies for enhancing the authenticity of the retrieved results [ CITATION Cha14 l 16393 ].

  • Prevalence of dental conditions recorded across various developing and underprivileged nations of the world [ CITATION Cha14 l 16393 ]. The lack of awareness among the common masses regarding infant feeding practices in these countries attributes to the pattern of dental caries among the affected children.

  • Considerable percentage, of confounding variables recorded in various research studies related to early feeding practices and subsequent development of childhood caries [ CITATION Cha14 l 16393 ].

  • The pattern of early childhood caries prevalently elevated among the children of age group of 1 – 3 years across preschools. The lack of knowledge and awareness of parents regarding the appropriate feeding interventions facilitates the deterioration of the oral health pattern of their children and subsequent development of early childhood caries across the community environment [ CITATION Sre16 l 16393 ].

  • The practice of bottle-feeding among preschool children results in the elevation of the frequency of early childhood caries [ CITATION Qad12 l 16393 ].

  • Inappropriate (carcinogenic) feeding behaviors among the underprivileged children of the society elevate their predisposition towards the development of early childhood caries across the community environment [ CITATION Kie16 l 16393 ]. The oral health of these underprivileged children therefore, requires improvement with the configuration of dental homes in the context of reducing their pattern of dental caries with the improvement of feeding interventions by the corresponding caretakers.

  • The cross-sectional study by [ CITATION Shr13 l 16393 ]
    reveals the pattern of early childhood caries among the children who remain deprived of breast-feeding with a frequency of less than five times in an entire day. However, lesser number of children affected with dental caries in scenarios when they were breastfed with a frequency of 10 in every 24 hours. Furthermore, inappropriate breast-feeding techniques with the absence of tooth brushing among pre-school children lead to the deterioration of their dental health patterns [ CITATION Shr13 l 16393 ]. Lack of appropriate dental interventions during the stages of early childhood extends detrimental effects in terms of the development of dental caries and deterioration of the dental health of the affected children.

  • The prevalence of development of dental caries among schoolchildren occurs during the stage of primary dentition and until the acquisition of the age of five years. The assistance of parents in terms of practicing the appropriate feeding as well as tooth cleansing techniques among the schoolchildren decreases their risk of the progression of dental caries during the early phases of childhood [ CITATION Shr13 l 16393 ].

  • Evidence-based research literature reveals the influence of dietary interventions on the dental health of infants during the initial twelve months of their life [ CITATION Fel10 l 16393 ]. The frequency of meals and unhygienic feeding conditions considerably elevates the risk of developing children in terms of acquiring the early childhood caries in the subsequent years of their life. The educational deficit regarding feeding practices among the mothers of infants and pre-school children leads to the establishment and progression of dental caries among the predisposed population.

  • The findings of the cohort study by [ CITATION Aro11 l 16393 ]
    reveal the influence of the duration of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and breastfeeding at nighttime on the pattern of dental caries among children during the initial two years of their life. Furthermore, the milk formula, duration and type affect the predisposition of children towards the development of early childhood caries across the community environment. Children who experience the pattern of dental caries during the early childhood stages are predisposed towards the development of compromised teeth in adulthood.

  • Mishandling of the milk feeding bottles and their bedtime utilization with the addition of lactose in milk results in the initiation of early childhood caries, thereby leading to the establishment of pattern of permanent dental decay in terms of primary as well as permanent dentition [ CITATION Col13 l 16393 ].

  • The pattern of dental caries considered as microbial manifestation by some of the clinical experts; however, the dietary factors predominantly contribute to the establishment of dental infections and subsequent dental decay in early childhood [ CITATION Col13 l 16393 ].

Evidence-Based Conclusions

  • Elevated frequency of breastfeeding after the age of two years results in the establishment of dental decay among the developing children.

  • Underprivileged children of the society remain predisposed towards the development of dental decay manifestations across the community environment.

  • Addition of sugar extracts in milk results in the promotion of dental decay among infants and toddlers.

  • Nocturnal feeding elevates the risk of dental decay among children in the context of the fact that limited saliva production at night leads to the deposition of sugar particles across the teeth that facilitate the establishment of dental manifestations, early childhood decay and associated infectious conditions.

  • The execution of breastfeeding during the initial one year of infant’s development promotes the establishment of dental health and reduction in the scope of early childhood caries across the community environment.

Study Objectives in the Context of Evidence

  • Dental screening interventions for the developing children necessarily warranted in the context of tracking the pattern of the establishment of dental decay among the affected subjects.

  • Prevention of early childhood caries requires the enhancement of feeding practices and acquisition of the evidence-based methods of health and hygiene by the caretakers.

  • Educational sessions and awareness campaigns require execution in the context of elevating the knowledge of mothers in terms of feeding their children in surpassing the scope of the establishment of early childhood caries.

  • Regular cleansing of teeth of children prior to and after the administration of feed necessarily warranted in the context of reducing the probability of dental infection progression and the establishment of the pattern of dental caries and subsequent decay.

Prospective Research

  • The organization of longitudinal and quantitative (rather cross – sectional and cohort studies) warranted in the context of attaining definitive evidences regarding the relationship between the progression of early childhood caries and inadequate feeding practices.

  • The establishment of concrete research evidence regarding the exact etiology of dental decay among children will provide an additional insight to the research community in terms of configuring prophylactic as well as remedial treatment approaches in reducing the burden of early childhood decay across the community environment.

Bibliography

Arora, A., Scott, J. A., Bhole, S., Do, L., Schwarz, E., & Blinkhorn, A. S. (2011). Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study. BMC Public Health .

Chaffee, B. W., & Cheng, A. (2014). Global Research Trends on Early-Life Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: A Systematic Review. Journal of Oral Diseases , 1-7.

Colak, H., Dülgergil, C. T., Dalli, M., & Hamidi, M. M. (2013). Early childhood caries update: A review of causes, diagnoses, and treatments. Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine , 29-38.

Feldens, C. A., Giugliani, E. R., Vigo, A., & Vítolo, M. R. (2010). Early feeding practices and severe early childhood caries in four-year-old children from southern Brazil: a birth cohort study. Caries Research , 445-452.

Kierce, E. A., Boyd, L. D., Rainchuso, L., Palmer, C. A., & Rothman, A. (2016). Association between Early Childhood Caries, Feeding Practices and an Established Dental Home. Journal of Dental Hygiene , 90 (1), 18-27.

Qadri, G., Nourallah, A., & Splieth, C. H. (2012). Early childhood caries and feeding practices in kindergarten children. Quintessence International , 43 (6), 503-510.

Shrutha, S. P., Vinit, G. B., Giri, K. Y., & Alam, S. (2013). Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: A Cross-Sectional Study of Preschool Children in Kanpur District, India. ISRN Dentistry .

Sreedharan, A., Faizal, C. P., & Chandru, T. P. (2016). Feeding practices and prevalence of early childhood caries among preschool children in urban and rural areas of Kannur district. International Journal of Dental Research , 11-15.