Leisure 1 Essay Example

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Report on Leisure


The term leisure poses a lot challenges in determining what really constitutes leisure, which can be attributed to the fact that leisure is defined differently by dictionaries and literature. This is to say that the meaning provided by dictionaries in some ways is quite different from the definition derived from literature. According to dictionaries leisure is defined as a time whereby one is free from work activities. Therefore, according to such definition leisure arises only after an individual is not excused his working routine. However, according to literature leisure is defined as an individual’s state of mind which is usually characterized by unobligated time (Elkington & Gammon 2013). Additionally, leisure time may involve extensive activities or no activities at all. Therefore, according to this definition leisure arises whereby an individual mind is at peace and can relate to the elements of the surrounding environment. Based on this definition it is clear that leisure does not necessarily mean free time from work but involves an individual’s state of mind (Gelber 2013). Additionally, during leisure individuals have the option of deciding what activities they wish to engage in at that particular time.it should also be not that leisure can be categorized into two; serious leisure and casual leisure. Serious leisure is more motivated by external factor and the rewards are not easily realized. However, casual leisure is more of internally motivated and the rewards are easily realized (Beard & Wilson 2006).

As a result of the complexities of leisure various theories have over the years been developed in an effort to try and assist in explaining what constitutes leisure. These theories differ from definition of leisure to what constitutes leisure. According to the classical theory, leisure is the free time spent in engaging in activities that are highly motivated. Therefore, this definition excludes activities which lack motivational inspiration such as watching a mediocre movie. However, when one engages in activities such as artworks or political debate then such activities would amount to leisure. However, according to Antiutilitarian theory leisure is described as a state of mind. It goes further to state that an individual should not try to justify the activities engaged which could be useful or less useful (Rojek 2010). Therefore, based on this theory leisure could involve activities that are deemed positive and negative activities. Neulinger’s Paradigm of Leisure, on the other hand, tries to distinguish leisure activities and non-leisure activities in an attempt to describe what leisure is. The theory further looks at the motivators’ whether intrinsic or extrinsic in that are the activities done for the sake of pleasure or for a reward. Therefore, activities that are intrinsically motivated they are deemed to constitute leisure, while activities that are extrinsically motivated are termed as non-leisure. Therefore, based on Neulinger’s theory leisure constitutes activities that bring self-satisfaction of the mind (Gelber 2013).

Using Neulinger’s Paradigm of Leisure the paper tries to examine what leisure is in regards to Martin’s activities which according to him constitute leisure. Additionally, using Martin’s view of leisure it becomes quite easy to understand Neulinger’s Paradigm of Leisure and how it applies in the modern world (Haworth 2006). Therefore, this paper examines the elements that constitutes Martin’s personal leisure time and compares them to Neulinger’s Paradigm of Leisure. In doing so it becomes quite easy to understand what really constitutes leisure.

Neulinger’s Paradigm of Leisure in Relation to Martin’s Personal Leisure

According to Martin leisure regards the free time that he has when he is not obligated to meet the duties of his employment. Additionally, according to Martin this is only achievable on weekends as he is not obligated to go to work. As a result of this Martin states that leisure time means spending time with his family. This he achieves by going out for mountain hikes with his family. Additionally, Martin states that he also uses this time to write a book which he has been trying to complete for nearly two years. Martin has always viewed himself as an author and hopes that one day he would become the bestseller. As earlier stated Neulinger’s theory classifies leisure into various categories which are characterized by distinct features. Under Neulinger’s Paradigm of Leisure, the activity of mountain hiking with family would constitute pure leisure. Pure leisure as per Neulinger’s theory involves activities that are conducted by individuals and are intrinsically motivated (Rojek 2010). This is to say that the activities performed in this category are solely for enjoyment and are not determined by external motivators. However, writing of a novel does not amount to pure leisure as per Neulinger’s theory, but falls under leisure-job category. This is attributed to the fact that despite the fact that Martin is self-motivated to write a book, he is also motivated by external factors. This is evident by the fact that Martin aims at becoming the best seller upon completion of his novel. Therefore, based on Neulinger’s theory leisure is any activity that that is conducted by an individual as a result of their own will and it could be intrinsically or externally motivated (Haworth 2006).

Additionally, according to Martin leisure time plays quite a significant role in his life, due to the fact that it is only this time that he is capable of achieving his desires. Therefore, he attributes time spent in his free time to the need to meet his personal desires. This is in correlation to Neulinger’s Paradigm of Leisure which states that leisure should be more of self-satisfaction. This means that activities should be more motivated by internal factors rather than by external factors such as money rewards (Torkildsen 2012). Additionally, according to Neulinger’s theory when individuals are intrinsically motivated they are more likely to experience peace of mind, in that they are completely satisfied. Additionally, Martin explains that leisure time assists him in clearing some of the tensions that he may have come across during the week in the course of his employment. This correlates with Neulinger’s theory which states that leisure should be a way of distracting oneself from the day today routines. Therefore, activities such as mountain hiking and writing of novels act as a distraction from the day to day routines of Martin.

Lifestyle management

Lifestyle refers to activities which are structured with an aim of promoting health well-being of an individual. This is to say that the sole aim of lifestyle management is to ensure that individuals are healthy to undertake their day to day activities. Lifestyle management is structured according to the lifestyle of an individual. Lifestyle is described as the manner in which an individual lives reflecting the values and attributes of the individual. Therefore, as a result of an individual’s lifestyle concerns have been raised regarding the health of individuals as they go on with their day to day activities. This is because certain lifestyles are deemed detrimental to an individual’s health. Therefore, this has led to coming up with programmes that try and ensure that an individual’s health is promoted. As a result of this individuals have incorporated leisure and lifestyle management (Haworth 2006). Upon describing what lifestyle entails to Martin it was clear that he was not aware of lifestyle management. This was despite the fact that he goes for mountain hikes. He states that he goes for mountain hikes because he loves observing what nature has to offer. However, what he does not know is that he could turn mountain hike to be a form of promoting his health. Therefore, this shows that leisure can be incorporated with lifestyle management for maximum satisfaction. This is because through leisure an individual is able of attaining self-satisfaction and experience a piece of mind. Additionally, by incorporating lifestyle manage Martin is bale to promote his health which could prove vital for conducting his day to day duties in the course of his employment (Haworth 2006).


In conclusion, according to Neulinger’s Paradigm of Leisure, leisure relates to the state of mind of an individual. Leisure arises from perceived freedom as opposed to work which is perceived from constraints. This means that an activity will only constitute to be a leisure if it is conducted out of free by an individual and is internally motivated rather than by external activities. Therefore, in relation to Martin it is evident that the activities he engages in amount to leisure rather than work when compared to Neulinger’s Paradigm of Leisure. Additionally, by looking Martin’s leisure activities it is capable of identifying the two main classes of leisure, which are casual leisure and serious. As early stated casual leisure involves activities whose rewards are easily attained and short-lived such as mountain hiking. However, activities such as book writing fall under serious leisure since the rewards are not easily attained but require a lot of effort to attain them. Additionally, serious leisure is usually motivated by external factors such as rewards, and in the case of Martin the main motivator is to be recognized as the bestseller upon completion on of his novel. Additionally, by incorporating Martin activities it becomes quite easy to understand what entails leisure as per Neulinger’s Paradigm of Leisure. This is because Martin being an employed individual helps in differentiating leisure time and work time. Additionally, it is easier to identify the various factors that may motivate an individual into participating in various leisure activities.


Beard, C & Wilson, J.P (2006). Experiential Learning: A Best Practice Handbook for Educators and Trainers (2nd ed.). London: Kogan Page Publishers

Elkington, S & Gammon, S (2013). Contemporary Perspectives in Leisure: Meanings, Motives and Lifelong Learning. London: Routledge.

Gelber, S.M (2013). Hobbies: Leisure and the Culture of Work in America. New York: Columbia University Press.

Haworth, J.T (2006). Work, Leisure and Well-Being. London: Routledge.

Rojek, C (2010). The Labour of Leisure: The Culture of Free Time. New York: SAGE.

Torkildsen, G (2012). Leisure and Recreation Management (4th ed.). London: Routledge.