Lecture Essay Example

  • Category:
    Marketing
  • Document type:
    Essay
  • Level:
    Undergraduate
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    5
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    3178

15Marketing Management

Marketing Management

Executive Summary

The purpose of this assessment is to assist a recruiting agency increase its capacity in volunteer tourism. The assessment sets short term actions as well as looks at elements that need a long term to accomplish. It explores on the need to utilize a vacation to make a difference in the society. Also assist,
Speiessaver, a volunteer in recruiting agency, to use volunteer tourism strategize for the recruitment and promoting economic and environmental conservation. The recruitment of volunteer tourist aims in the conservation of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Truong Son (Annimate Mountain Range). The assessment introduces a modern way of marketing the recruitment process to many volunteers. It recognizes the fact that customers have different needs and preferences. It proposes the segmentation of available market to help in marketing and promoting of the volunteer recruitment programme.

41.0 Background information

42.0 Literature review

52.1 Cultural immersion

62.2 Seeking camaraderie.

62.4 Seeking bonding opportunities

72.5 Giving back.

83.1 Segmentation

93.1.1 Demographics variables

93.1.2 Geographical variables

103.1.3 Motivation variables

103.1.4 Behavioural variables:

103.2 Segmentation strategy

114.0 Target

124.1 Strategy in targeting

125.0 Positioning

125.1 Strategy for positioning

135.1 Product differentiation

146.0 Conclusion.

1.0 Background information

Volunteer tourism offers new opportunity in the tourism industry. It helps to create a supply chain of tourists. It also offers quality options aimed at satisfying tourists. The placement is flexible to ensure satisfaction and convenience of employees. Volunteer tourism is important as it helps in creation of sustainable tourism products. These are the products that operate in harmony with nature and society. It therefore, offers sustainable consumption in the tourism industries. Additionally, it promotes mutual benefits between the host community and the volunteer.

Volunteer tourism is a new form of tourism that began to gain prominence in early 1970’s (Sloan et al 2012). It is an advanced form of tourism as it involves activities that are centred on providing beneficial effects to local people. In addition, it ensures environmental preservation. The move into volunteer tourism has been prompted due to increase in need to preserve the environment and natural resources. This is as a result adverse environmental degradation and global warming. In attempt to curb the situation there is need to create environmental awareness. This paper seeds to derive a business plan surveying ways of promoting this tourism in Australia, in order to save the plight of species of reptiles, birds and mammals in the Truong Son (Annamite Mountain Range-Central Vietnam).

2.0 Literature review

This study has identified four key motivational themes that emerge in shaping reasons for individuals in volunteer tourism. These include cultural immersion, seeking camaraderie, seeking bonding opportunities and giving back.. Butcher & Smith 2010)Volunteer tourism is a responsible form of tourism where the participant often spends significant time in a variety of activities in conservational, education and social activities. These activities are driven by the desire to promote and conserve environment. In this case, the reptiles, birds and mammals. This strategy targets the local communities and Australian residents. The volunteer tourist needs to pay for specific expenses in order to promote the project. The participants therefore, must be motivated to participate (

2.1 Cultural immersion

Although volunteer tourism may have some prior consciousness of global developmental issues, As Campbell (2006) states, the greater part of participants feel that it provides opportunities to reside and work amongst populace from different societies and cultures .As a consequence, it promotes cultural understanding, social awareness and a sense of global responsibility. Volunteer tourism provides hosts with a voice; a way of spreading their message and rousing long-term social relations and activism. Volunteers take their experiences home and are inclined to keep in touch when they end the placement and go back to their residence. They often take part in social activities such as fundraising for the hosts.

Volunteer tourism provides opportunity for engrossment of; physical, emotional, social and culture with local community and other participants. The participants enjoy interactions, experiences and natural beauty. They experience the day to day culture with the local communities. The fact that this recruitment targets the Australian residents creates an advantage for communities in Australia to meet in different segments to interact and immerse their culture. As a result, it eliminates cultural differences and creates harmony and unity. Consequently, the participants can derive activities and bonds that conserve the animals in Truong Son.

2.2 Seeking camaraderie.

Volunteer tourism provides a platform for meeting and interacting with the ‘most enjoyable people’. These meetings give opportunity for interactions and sharing of ideas, beliefs and values. Not only is this motivating but also is pleasurable. It helps to make friends, meet ‘like- minded people’ and work with different groups. The quest for camaraderie to establish a series of new net works is beneficial and motivational factor the volunteers should therefore be segmented and positioned in a way that it puts the ‘like groups’ together. As an outcome, it creates fun and new friends thus making participants look forward to more vocational tourism opportunities. Volunteer tourism targets on tourist are willing to contribute their time, income and knowledge in a project that involves wildlife and eco tourism. It involves tourists who, for different reasons and purposes. Volunteer during vacations aid in alleviation of poverty and restore certain aspects of a society (Campbell 2006). It therefore, becomes a form of sustainable tourism. This means that it positions the volunteers to works in harmony with the local society, culture and nature to offer sustainability in the consumption trends in mass tourism. This form of tourism gives numerous benefits to the community .These include increased human power, financial support, and increased employment. The participants enjoy building up new friends and ties with nature.

2.4 Seeking bonding opportunities

Volunteer vacationers are motivated by the bonding opportunity presented by the volunteer tourism. The opportunity segments participants into groups depending on occupation, education and family bonds (Wittek 2004). When children are targeted in volunteer tourism, they learn new things about the wild in a case like Truong Son (Animate Mountain Range), they get to have a first -hand experience with wild animals and birds. This is fun, exciting and educative and links the children with the environment they live in. The participants are also exposed to the realistic and natural world. Volunteer tourism also presents an opportunity for parents to bond with their children. Relatives also can spend time in bonding with one another during such moments. It is essential for group members to take part together in such activities as they help to rebuilds their reunion. Even among old and young couples. It helps build up memories of good and enjoyable moments

The volunteer tourism provides psychological and emotional satisfaction. The participants discover themselves and promote self confidence. Wittek (2004) argues that, volunteering gives an individual a sense of direction and personal fulfilment. It promotes concern for others in society as well as promoting critical and creative thinking in participants. It hence, acts as a moment for self reflection, self-realization and recreation. Volunteer tourism therefore acts as a moment for self renewal, enhancement and accomplishment thereby regaining self image. Consequently, it motivates individuals to take part in volunteer tourism.

2.5 Giving back.

The desire to give back to the society is another factor that motivates people to take part in volunteer tourism. It involves reaching out for the less privileged in society. These may be human beings or animals in the world. Most people, belief that, excellence in life relies on; giving back to society. Spending time with animals for example birds, animals and reptiles is a good way to do just to the society. The recruitment should therefore target on participant with a purpose as to position the volunteers at a chance to interact and assist the less fortunate.

Although volunteer tourism is prompted by the desire for personal and mutual benefits, it ends up benefiting both the participant and the tourist organization. The participants get to have fun, adventure, experience different environment and culture. (Holden, A & Fennell 2013) acknowledges that, there are various reasons for tourist to participate in a volunteer tour. The ultimate goal targets in the contribution of conservation of environmental, nature social and economic factors of hosts. Besides, it benefits the tourism agency organizing the recruitment and considers their motive of making profit.

3.0 Marketing and promotion strategy.

Traditionally mass business marketing was conducted after standardizing a product. The realization that customers have different and unique needs and preferences has prompted the urge to satisfy all customers (Butcher & Smith 2010). This has led to target marketing of goods and service .A process known as STP that is segmentation, targeting and positioning.STP involves dividing the potential market into distinctive groups of consumers. As a consequence, it helps to maintain focus on one or more group that is easy to access. The marketer initially segments the like-minded group and targets the most feasible segment(s). Finally, creates a distinctive picture of the product or service (positioning).

3.1 Segmentation

Segmentation is a marketing strategy that involves splitting of the buyers into groups with similar desires and wishes to fully utilize organizations resources. This gives the organization a business advantage and helps to attract customers. It helps to reduce risk in designing who, when, where, how and whom to market a service or a product. Therefore it increases marketing efficiency by directing marketing effort towards a specific segment of a population. The marketer identifies a common dimension that is viewed as a bigger market and profitable segment. The basis for segmentation of customer markets can be divided a variety of variables.

3.1.1 Demographics variables

This is the division of market into different groups depending on demographical variables

These refer to demographics such as gender, age, income, education, occupation, family life cycle, family size, generation, social class, income, religion, nationality, culture, sub-culture. The recruitment need to segments its recruits in different demographic to achieve greater success as gain competitive advantage (Dolnicar & Randle 2004). A research can be conducted online or manually by use of questioners to determine the suitable demographic variants.

3.1.2 Geographical variables

The geographical variables refer to location or country, region, state, city, population, climate, terrain. The market can be divided into different geographical regions. In this case the target country is Australian citizens. The geography requires that it should be accessible to different segments and in different means. For example, using; a vehicle, airplane, train or by foot. This helps in segmentation and identifying the target group. The climate should also be favourable – not too hot or cold. The terrain should be proper not very sloppy or slippery. Different terrain may also be used for different activities like hiking.

3.1.3 Motivation variables

The level of participant’s motivation determines their interest and participation. The level of motivation is variable and depends on the volunteer’s perception, personality, attitude, value, lifestyle, activities, and opinions and interests (Dolnicar & Randle 2004). To segment the volunteers in order of their motivation, the recruiting agency requires to survey and research on motivating factors among different groups for example hiking among children and youth. This serves to design the conservation activities of the participants during the volunteer tourism recruitment.

3.1.4 Behavioural variables:

The behavioural variables divides consumers into groups depending on the consumer awareness, benefits, motivation needs situations, occasions, loyalty, usage rate and status. The volunteer behaviour helps to create interest and motivate them in taking part in the volunteer activities. The volunteer behaviour determines the value of experiences. Recruiting agency requires to design the recruitment to involve memorable experiences and activities. This can be in long term or in short terms depending on the objectives of the recruitment.

3.2 Segmentation strategy

Effective segments require that the elements are measurable in size, purchasing power and profiles are measured. The recruitment should be affordable and beneficial to the different segments. The segment should also be easily accessible to the participants (Butcher & Smith 2010). The recruitment is based in Australia and it is easy to access the range. The agency needs to improve on its infrastructure as a long term strategy to increase its accessibility. The recruitment also needs to be designed in a manner that it is not only beneficial to the agency but also, to the volunteers.

These segments are created by the marketers in an attempt to reach out to consumers (Armstrong & Cunningham 2002). The segment needs to design effective programs to attract volunteer tourists.

The segment needs to be evaluated before implementation to determine the segment size and growth of the segment. The segment structural attractiveness should be accessed to determine their ability to catch the attention of volunteers. Furthermore, the recruitment agency’s’ goals and objectives and resources should be put into consideration before designing the segments. The marketing can then be done in different institution and companies. The marketing strategy should consider the market homogeneity, product homogeneity and recruitment agency resources. This promotes differentiation and identification of a product.

4.0 Target

The target is the person, group or organization that a marketer employs as customers. Target assist in segmentation as it helps in the division of customers into different groups with similar goals and objectives. The target group in volunteer tourism may differ from students in different institutions of learning, to employee in different companies. The learning institutions and companies are good target group as they have people with common interests as well as presenting a wider market for participants. The target can range from children, youth and old people.

4.1 Strategy in targeting

To target a specific the volunteer tourism must develop new and unique ways of motivating volunteers. It requires to be holistic and well networked to reach the target groups. The challenges and opportunities within the tourism industry must be identified to help face the changes and competition. The target group should then be reached through a series of marketing campaigns. This helps the agency to increase the number of volunteers as well as number of visits. The target group should also be accompanied by a number of services and activities that motivates. For example, a free lunch for students motivates students as a target for volunteer tourism. These because, most students love to travel; in order to experience memorable in eating or drinking experiences. Generally, it is unrealistic to attract everyone setting a specific target market will help the agency know where to commit and resource for funds. Moreover, it helps in designing promotion strategy.

5.0 Positioning

A products position refers to the manner in which a product is perceived by consumers. It determines the attributes and place a product occupies in the consumers’ minds in relation to other competing products. The agency needs to plan on the position to give to a service subsequently, giving the service an advantage over other services in the market.

5.1 Strategy for positioning

The positioning should be by order of products attributes, benefits, consumer category, occasion, product competition and product class. This assists a volunteer to easily make a choice in order of priority (Armstrong & Cunningham 2002). In addition it helps to arouse curiosity and interest in a volunteer. As a result a volunteer becomes more motivated in a specific recruiting programme over others. The position of a product should hence be innovatively and creatively cultivated to lure participant in the volunteer activity.

During implementation of positioning strategy, the following steps need to be followed. The first step is identifying possible competition advantage. Positioning the volunteer service in a way that it is competitively different .In step two select the right competitive advantage. This promotes the service as it gives it a distinctive selling proposition. The third step is communication and delivering the chosen position. This can be through advertisement in the media, use of social networks, emails and mails. This is the promotion of the volunteer tourism to create awareness and knowledge.

5.1 Product differentiation

This is a strategy aimed in positioning the services in such a way that it is attractive to volunteers. The product is different from other in the market in its physical attributes, service differences, personnel differentiation, the location and image (Armstrong, & Cunningham 2002). The important, distinctive, superior, communicable, profitable and affordable differences should be used for promotion of the volunteer services. During positioning of the services they should be in different perceptions so as to cater for a variety of consumers. There can be expensive and less expensive; high and moderate services.

In order to attract more volunteers Truong Son (Annamite Mountain Range) should offer a variety of recreation activities in additional to the educational animals. Services such as fun rides, exercises, live shows, good food and accommodation puts the recruitment agency at an enhanced position in recruitment process. Vital features too should be communicated and service quality presented in concise and cohesive information for the different segment .Thereby, creating value and promoting services involved in the recruitment process. This aims at promoting greater-than-anticipated demand for services by ensuring that quality-minded customers would participate more.

6.0 Conclusion.

The intention of this research is to come up with a plan for use by a recruitment agency in Truong. The research figures out the essence of identifying motivational strategy that helps in designing recruitment activities. The activities need to be tailored to suit the motivations of participants. The motivational factors need to be considered in the recruitment programme. This enables planning for relevant activities and planning. Understanding the market and marketing strategies in the volunteer activity is another major aspect in a volunteer planning. It involves understanding the current treads and framework in volunteerism. This enables the segmentation of available market into groups with similar needs and interests. This prompts re-designing the recruitment to suit volunteers’ interest. The target customers are also easily identified and the recruitment to rejuvenate their interest .Therefore making the recruitment process conservative and profitable.

References

Armstrong, G., & Cunningham, M. H. (2002). Principles of marketing. Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice Hall.

Brightsmith, D J, Stronza, A, & Holle, K 2008 Ecotourism, conservation biology, and volunteer tourism: A mutually beneficial triumvirate Biological conservation, 14111, 2832-2842.

Butcher, J, & Smith, P 2010 ‘Making a Difference’: Volunteer Tourism and Development Tourism Recreation Research, 351, 27-36.

Campbell, L M, & Smith, C 2006 What makes them pay? Values of volunteer tourists working for sea turtle conservation Environmental management, 381, 84-98.

Dolnicar, S, & Randle, M J 2004 What moves which volunteers to donate their time? An investigation of psychographic heterogeneity among volunteers in Australia.

Holden, A & Fennell, D 2013 The Routledge handbook of tourism and the environment New York: Routledge.

Sloan, P, Kaufman, C & Legrand, W 2012 Sustainable hospitality and tourism as motors for development : case studies from developing regions of the world London New York: Routledge .

Sweeney, S 2008 101 ways to promote your tourism web site: filled with proven internet marketing tips, tools, and techniques to get visitors to your site and your destination Gulf Breeze, FL: Maximum Press.

Wittek, V 2004 Assessing Experiences and Motivational Behaviors of Volunteers and Members at the Exploris Museum.